Russian Interaction with Germanic Lands

Kievan Period

Another work-in-progress
Updated 10 July 2011

9th Century:

    According to the Primary Chronicle, the first prince Rurik was a foreigner, one of the Rus, a Varangian tribe like the Danes, Swedes, English and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was established in the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation are similar to those prevalent in Jutland at that time. [Wikipedia]
    The only Hrörek described in Western chronicles was Rorik of Dorestad, a konung from the royal house of Hedeby. He was born about 810/820 to Ali Anulo, 9th King of Hedeby. Frankish chroniclers mention that he received lands in Friesland from the Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started to plunder neighbouring lands. The Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that Roerik disappears from the Western sources for a time. And at that very moment, in 862, the Russian Rurik arrives in the Eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga and later moves to Novgorod. Roerik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bald; in 882 he is already mentioned as dead. The Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879. According to Western sources, the ruler of Friesland was converted to Christianity by the Franks. This may have parallels with the Christianization of the Rus', as reported by Patriarch Photius in 867. [Wikipedia]

10th Century:

    Seven Latin sources document Olga's embassy to Emperor Otto I in 959. The continuation of Regino of Prüm mentions that the envoys requested the Emperor to appoint a bishop and priests for their nation. The chronicler accuses the envoys of lies, commenting that their trick was not exposed until later. Thietmar of Merseburg says that the first archbishop of Magdeburg, before being promoted to this high rank, was sent by Emperor Otto to the country of the Rus (Rusciae) as a simple bishop but was expelled by pagans. The same data is duplicated in the annals of Quedlinburg and Hildesheim, among others. [Wikipedia]

    959 AD Olga contacts King Otto I, asks for German bishops. Bishop sent in 962. [Jelisavcic]

    Lambert of Hersfeld records that, on the Easter of 973, the Holy Roman Emperor was visited by envoys from Rus' (legati gentium Ruscorum) during the reign of Yaropolk I. In later centuries it was said that Yaropolk I also exchanged ambassadors with the Pope. The Chronicon of Adémar de Chabannes and the life of St. Romuald (by Pietro Damiani) document how St. Bruno of Querfurt was sent to Rus (Latin: Russia) and succeeded in converting a local king (one of three brothers who ruled the land) to Christianity. As both texts are rife with anachronisms, Vladimir Parkhomenko reasons that Bruno's deeds were conflated with those of his predecessors, Adalbert of Prague and several anonymous missionaries active in Eastern Europe during Otto II's reign. [Wikipedia]

    During his pagan years, Vladimir I "the Great" had a multitude of wives and concubines, some of them foreign.

    In 988, after taking the town of Chersonesos in Crimea, Vladimir I negotiated for the hand of the emperor Basil II's sister, Anna Porphyrogeneta. Vladimir was baptized at Cherson, taking the Christian name of Basil out of compliment to his imperial brother-in-law; the sacrament was followed by his wedding with Anna. [Wikipedia]
    Anna died four years before Vladimir, yet Thietmar of Merseburg, writing from contemporary accounts, mentions that Boleslaw I of Poland captured Vladimir's widow during his raid on Kiev in 1018. The emigre historian Nicholas Baumgarten referred to the controversial record of the "Genealogia Welforum" and the "Historia Welforum Weingartensis" that one daughter of Count Kuno von Oenningen (future Duke Konrad of Swabia) by "filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" (Otto the Great's daughter; possibly Rechlinda Otona [Regelindis], claimed by some as illegitimate daughter and by others legitimate, born from his first marriage with Edith of Wessex) married "rex Rugorum" (king of Russia). He interpreted this evidence as pertaining to Vladimir's last wife. It may be that the only child of this alliance was Dobronega, or Maria, who married Casimir I of Poland between 1038 and 1042 and she was still young enough to bear at least five children, including two future Polish kings, it is thought probable that she was Vladimir's daughter by the last marriage. Some sources claimed Agatha, the wife of Edward the Exile of England, was another daughter of this marriage and full-sister of Dobronegra. Their marriage took place about the same time of Dobronegra's wedding (the date of birth of her first child support this) so perhaps this was double wedding of sisters. This would help resolve the question about the conection between Agatha and the Holy Roman Empire claimed by several medieval sources. [Wikipedia]

11th Century:

    In 1072, Sviatoslav II married Oda, daughter of a certain "Count Lippold", and the sister of Burkhard, provost of Trier. Oda's grand-uncles were Pope Leo IX and Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. [Wikipedia]

    1075 AD Izyaslav goes to Emperor Henry IV and sends son, Yaropolk, to Pope Gregory VII seeking aid, but they are unsuccessful. Emperor and Pope have more important things on their minds. (Investiture controversy) [Jelisavcic]

    Sviatopolk II married twice; to a Bohemian princess and then in 1094 to a daughter of Tugor Khan of the Kypchaks. By his first wife he had two daughters, Zbyslava, whom he married to king Boleslaw III of Poland, and Predslava to Prince Álmos of Croatia. His son Yaroslav reigned in Volynia and was married three times - to Hungarian, Polish, and Kievan princesses. His other daughter, Maria, married Piotr Włostowic. [Wikipedia]

    1096 AD Polovtsi forces of Khans Kur and Tugor fall on Pereyaslavl town Ust'ye at the confluence of the Trubesh and Dnepr and on Kyiv. Vladimir Monomakh kills two Polovtsi leaders in battle. Khan Turog raids Periaslavl while Khan Boniak raids Kyiv and burns royal palace at Berestovo and sacks the three monasteries south of town. Oleg Svyatoslavich goes north to war against Vladimir Monomakh's sons, one is killed at Suzdal. Previously the north-eastern towns were remote and marginal, but now they are becoming more important economically and therefore of more political interest. [Jelisavcic]

    1097 AD David Igoryevich Vladimirski sends Kyivan troops and Polovtsi Khan Bonyak's cavalry against Magyars. Polovtsi give Magyars a decisive defeat on the San River near Peremishl , this is precedent for Kyivan use of Polovtsi cavalry in war. [Jelisavcic]

    1099 AD War of Kyivan principality in Volinya against Polish kingdom. [Jelisavcic]

    Vladimir Monomakh, son of Vsevolod I and a Byzantine princess, married Gytha of Wessex, daughter of Harold Godwinson. She died in Palestine around 1098, possibly following Godfrey of Bouillon in the first Crusade. [Wikipedia]
    Vladimir's sister, Eupraxia married Henry the Long, Markgraf of Nordmark. [Wikipedia]
    Eupraxia then married the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, taking the name Adelheid. [Wikipedia]

12th Century:
    In 1095, Mstislav wed Princess Christine of Sweden, daughter of King Inge I of Sweden. Among their children: Ingebora of Kiev, married Canute Lavard of Jutland, and was mother to Valdemar I of Denmark; Malmfrid, married (1) Sigurd I of Norway; (2) Eric II of Denmark; and Eupraxia, married Alexius Comnenus, son of John II Comnenus
    Christine died in 1122; later that year Mstislav married again. Their children included Euphrosyne of Kiev, who married King Geza II of Hungary. [Wikipedia]

    Iziaslav II Mstislavich's first wife was a German princess, daughter of Conrad III of Germany and his first wife Gertrud von Komburg. Their children included Eudoxia, who married Senior Prince Mieszko III of Poland. Iziaslav's second wife was a daughter of King Demetre I of Georgia. [Wikipedia]

    1142 - Foreign traders noticed in Novgorod. [Michell]

    1157 - Bremen merchants in Livonia. [Michell]

    1158 AD First German merchants- missionaries arrive at mouth of West Dvina in Livonia. [Jelisavcic]

    1180 - first Hanseatic Kontor founded in Novgorod, and St. Paul's church constructed as archives and storehouse, in addition to place of worship. [Hanse Chronicle]

    1191 AD Trade treaty between Novgorod the Great and Hanse towns, Yaroslav Vladimirovich is the appointed prince of Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1199 - oldest known charter granted to German merchants in Novgorod. [Chronicle of the Hanse]

13th Century:

    1200 AD Lithuanians invade Novgorod lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1201 AD Swedes invade Novgorod lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1203 AD The rulers of Polotsk are concerned about the German actions against the Livs, who were tribute payers of Polotsk. Polotsk troops campaign for the first time against Riga. At the same time the Lithuanian prince Vissival'd calls for assistance against the approaching Teutonic knights. [Jelisavcic]

    1206-10 AD The Polotsk druzhina campaigns a second time coming to the aid of the Livs. But they are late, meanwhile the Bishop of Riga's knights and landsknetcht defeat the Polotsk troops laying siege to their outposts in Livonia at Koknes and Yersika, which they capture in 1207. [Jelisavcic]

    1211 AD The Poles and Hungarians support the Guelfs against Pope Innocent III. The Galich Rus pay dearly at Hungarian hands. They invite the Chernigovtsi (Ol'govichi) to rule. The boyars fight the Ol'govichi who seek aid from Hungarians. The boyars win and execute the Ol'govichi, but Galich is divided between Hungarians and Poles in 1214. [Jelisavcic]

    1212 AD Early in the year Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi at the head of a combined Novgorod-Pskov-Polotsk-Toropets army of 15,000 campaigns successfully against the Chud and Livonian knights as far as Baltic at Tallinin. (First of at least 5 campaigns against Chud). He raids the support bases of the Knights of the Cross in Livonia. He levies tribute. But the Germans manage to break up the alliance, first forcing Polotsk to come to terms and then by a second treaty compel Novgorod to come to terms with Treiden. Mstislav prepares for southern campaign. [Jelisavcic]

    1216 AD Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich captures Novii Torg and organizes a blocade of grain delivery to Novgorod. In answer the Novgorodians call in prince Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, who currently is based at Toropetsk. In this campaign is first mention of Rzhev under Mstislav's control and of Zubtsov taken by the Periaslavl -Zaleski troops. Mstislav gains victory over the Vladimirian troops but only briefly, it does not change overall situation. In face of German threat Novgorod has to return the throne to prince of Vladimir. [Jelisavcic]

    1216 AD The same year Mstislav Mstislavich leads Novgorod troops into Livonia as far as Riga. [Jelisavcic]

    1217 AD The Knights of the Cross build a fortress at Odenpa in eastern Estonia. They attack Russian villages on the Feast of Epiphany, 16 January. [Jelisavcic]

    1217 AD The combined armies of Novgorod (led by Mstislav Mstislavich) and Estonia campaign successfully in southern Estonia. Heinrick the Lithuanian in the "Chronicle of Livonia" writes "In 1217 the Novgorodians gathered a force headed by the Pskov king Vladimir and his subjects. They gathered strength throughout Estonia, leading the Est in siege against the Knights of the Cross." [Jelisavcic]

    1218 AD The Novgorodian-Pskov army reaches and besieges Venden, the citadel of the Livonian Order. [Jelisavcic]

    1218-19 AD Bishop Albert makes his brother, Engelbert, prior of Saint Mary's and marries his brother, Theodoric, to a daughter of the Prince of Pskov, Vladimir Mstislavich. This last does not meet the approval of the Pskov veche, so they chase Vladimir out of town.[Jelisavcic]

    1220 AD The Teutonic Knights capture much of the western Polotsk lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1220-1460 - The growth of the Hanse trade was aided by the business acument of the German merchants, but also the troubles with the Lithuanians, Tartars, and Teutonic knights. Merchants from Brunswick, Dortmund, Duisburg, Magdeburg, Munster, etc. were represented in the Novgorod Hanse. And even medieval Russians sometimes venture far overland to reach customers. [Michell]

    1222 AD The Ests aid the Novgorodian-Pskovite army to wipe out Livonian knight garrisons at Ezel, Fellin and Odenp. The Novgorodian prince, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich brings 20,000 troops to grab all Livonia up to Revel. Yaroslav sends Prince Vyachko with a Rus druzhina to Yur'yev. [Jelisavcic]

    1224 AD The Battle on the river Imer. The year following Yaroslav's siege of Revel, after the Tatar victory over the Russians, the Teutonic knights defeated the army of Est on the river Imer. The Est had rebelled, and Yaroslav sent to Yur'yev, prince Vyachko with a Russian druzhina. The capture by the Danes of Yur'yev in 1224 led to a peace with boundaries of the Lake Chud' and along the river Narov. Northern Estonia in German hands. The Livonian knights capture Yur'yev. The Talavy area, south east Lithuania around Yur'yev, is divided between the Bishop of Riga and the Teutonic Order. An independent bishopric is founded at Derpt- Yur'yev. The Est are nearly wiped out and the Russians chased out of Estonia. [Jelisavcic]

    1225 - Date of the Skra or code of the Nemetski (Germanic) factory in Novgorod. [Michell]

    Yaroslav II was the fourth son of Vsevolod the Big Nest. In 1200, he was sent by his father to rule the town of Pereyaslav near the Kypchak steppes. In 1222, Yaroslav overran all of Estonia. Four years later, he devastated Finland and baptised Karelia. [Wikipedia]

    1226 AD Yelena Mstislavna, daughter of Novgorod (then Galicia) Prince Mstislav Udaloi, marries the Hungarian heir and future king Andrew III. This is the third house into which Mstislav's daughters have married. [Jelisavcic]

    1226 AD The campaign against the neighbors of the Korelians, the "En or Yen" leads to a revanche in 1228 in which the inhabitants around Lake Ladoga led by their posadnik defeat the attackers. [Jelisavcic]

    1229 - Priviledges granted to German merchants at Novgorod discusses weights, measures, portage fees, legal jurisdictions, etc. and specifies that "Guests may send their children freely and without hindrance in the land to learn the language wherever they wish." [1229 Privileges]

    1230 AD King Henry III of England grants special privileges to Gotland merchants and pension to the Teutonic knights to encourage trade between Baltic and England. [Jelisavcic]

    1234 AD Battle of Yemaiyigi (Embakh) River. Prince Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich and his fourteen year old son, Aleksandr (later Nevski), force the Order knights onto the ice of the Omovzha River where many are drowned and others manage to reach Yur'yev. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingershtein, concluds a peace with Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich which is observed for four years. [Jelisavcic]

    1234 AD Battle of Derpt, Yur'yev. Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich receives the appanage of the cities of Pereyaslavl Zaleski, Dmitrov, and Tver. The Novgorodians invited prince Yaroslav to rule in 1215 and in 1226 and 1230. In this battle he mets the knights outside Yur'yev. Many knights of the Sword are drowned. The same year the Lithuanians attacked the knights of the Sword and drove east to Torshok, near Tver, where they are repulsed by Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich's druzhina and chased clear to Toropets. [Jelisavcic]

    1236 AD Battle of the Shaulya (Saule) River on 21 September. Also known as the battle of Kamenka, a small village on the boundary between Latvia and Lithuania. The site is disputed. Under the leadership of Mindovg the Lithuanians unite their lands. At the Shaulya Prince Ringol'd defeats the Teutonic knights led by the Grossmeister, with Count Dannenberg and Count Hazel'dorf of the German knights of the Cross. Also participating are princes of Volynia; with their companies of Galicians. The heavily armed knights are annihilatred. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingerstein, Dannenberg and Hazel'dorf are killed. Also killed are 48 company commanders and the entire command of the knights of the Cross. Pope Gregory calls for days of grieving. Ringold changes allegiance to Latvia. [Jelisavcic]

    1237 AD The battle of Dorogichin. The druzhina of Prince Daniil Romanovich of Galicia, grandson of Kyivan Grand Prince Mstislav Izyaslavich and son of Roman Mstislavich who had crearted the powerful Volyni-Galicia principality, defeats the Livonian knights lead by Magistrate Bruno. [Jelisavcic]

    1237 AD Battle of the River Memel'. The river is a tributary of the Neiman on its lower course near where it empties into Konigsberg bay. A powerful Teutonic fortress was located here. In a bloody battle the Lithuanians defeated the combined forces of the Teutonic and Livonian knights plus units from western Europe and Pskov. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD Aleksandr Yaroslavich defeats Swedish force led by Earl Birger, who is attempting to block Novgorod's access to the sea, on Neva River, receives name "Nevski". Livonian Knights move to capture Pskov but their allies in the Teutonic Order are diverted by the call from the Duke of Silesia to aid Poland against the Mongols. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD The knights of the Order with detachments from the Dutch king and Bishop of Derpt defeat the Pskovian army led by the voyevode Gavrilya Gorislavich and capture the fortress at Izborsk, killing all the local inhabitants. On 16 Sept the German knights aided by Germanophile Pskovian boyars capture the city. Aleksandr Yaroslavich's army is too weak for him to assist. Aleksandr flees Novgorod to Peryeyaslavl. The Novgorodians receive help from Andrei, another son of Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich, but he is unable to stop the German advance.[Jelisavcic]

    1241 AD Livonian Knights with support from remaining Teutonic Order begin campaign against Novgorod and capture Pskov. With support of mercenary Lithuanians, Ests and the always-ready-for-a-fight, Livs, they take Kopor'ye and Tesov on the Oredezh River and approach Novgorod. Aleksandr moves around this force and retakes Kopor'ye, hanging traitors amongst the Chud and Vod clans. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Livonian and Teutonic Knights march against Novgorod. Andrei Yaroslavich is sent by the new grand prince, of Vladimir, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich to assist Aleksandr at Novgorod. After liberating Pskov, they meet the Germans at the "Uzmen" at the Vorontei stone and defeat them on 5 April at frozen Lake Peipus (lake Chud). 500 knights are killed and 50 taken prisoner. (estimates vary greatly) At this Prussians revolt. [Jelisavcic]

    Alexander Nevsky was summoned by the Novgorodians in 1236 to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders. After the Swedish army had landed at the confluence of the rivers Izhora and Neva, Alexander and his small army suddenly attacked the Swedes on July 15, 1240 and defeated them. After Pskov had been invaded by the crusading Livonian Knights, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander. In spring of 1241 he returned from his exile, gathered an army, and drove out the invaders. [Wikipedia]

    After the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia’s Northwest. He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, they signed a first peace treaty between Russia and Norway in 1251. Alexander led his army to Finland and successfully routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. He dismissed the Papal curia’s attempts to cause war between Russia and the Golden Horde. Thanks to his friendship with Sartaq Khan, Alexander was installed as the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1252. A decade later, Alexander died in a town of Gorodets-on-the-Volga on his way back from Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde. [Wikipedia]

    1253 AD Daniil Romanovich of Volynia-Galicia seeks aid from western states (Hungary and Germany) and the Pope to start a crusade against the Mongols, without success. Tatar army of Nevruya attacks Peryeyaslav'-Zaleskii and another of Kurems attacks south Russia. These are driven back by Daniil. Daniil then wages war against Mindovg in Lithuania. Daniil attempts dynastic alliances. He marries sister of Tovtivil of Lithuania while his son, Roman, marries Gertrud, daughter of the Austrian prince Fredrick. Daniil receives title of King of Galicia from Pope in 1254. [Jelisavcic]

    1259 AD Conflict between Novgorod and Hanse league over Lubeck trade ends in June with new treaty. [Jelisavcic]

    1260 AD Battle of Durben, Lithuanians led by Mindovg defeat Teutonic Order when landsknekht flee the field disrupting the battle order, leading to a new revolt by Prussians. The Livonian Order magistrate, Borkhardt von Hornkhauzen, the Marshall von Botal' and the Swedish Hertzog , Carl all perish. The Danish- Swedish army is severly defeated. 150 titled knights fall and 14 are taken prisoner, of which 8 are burned at the stake to appease Lithuanian pagan gods. Curland defects from Christiandom and Prussia returns to Prussians. Mindovg is stripped of his title as Roman king. But the Baltic region seeks his protection from the Teutonic knights and he also defends the Rus population of Chyornaya Rusi (Ukraine) and Byelorussia, Volynia and Pskov. Mindovg sends ambassadors to Vladimir to unite against the Teutonic Order and Aleksandr accepts. But nothing comes of this. [Jelisavcic]

    1267 AD The Novgorod posadnik, Mikhail Fyodorovich, and the veche call for aid from the son of Aleksandr Nevski, Dmitrii Alexandrovich, and his Pereyaslav polki. Upon learning of the call to arms in Novgorod the Germans at Derpt-Yur'yev, the leaders of Riga and the Order representatives send emmisaries to Novgorod to ask why war preparations are being made. [Jelisavcic]

    1268 AD Battle of River Kegola. Novgorod is now prepared for war. In January they send army against Danes at Rakovor in Estonia. On 12 February they are ambushed by troops of the very cities in Livonia that had insisted on peace in 1267. Novgorod looses its posadnik, the tysyatskii, and many polk commanders in a bloody battle into the night. By morning the Livonians move on to loot the region around Pskov while Dmitrii retains the battlefield, hence can claim victory. [Jelisavcic]

    1269 - trade agreement between Novgoord, Lubeck, and Gothland. [Michell]

    1288 AD Galician chronicles mention presence of merchants from Sudak, Germany, and Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1293 - Lubeck wins control over Novgorod Kontor from Visby (Gotland). [Chronicle of the Hanse]

14th Century:
    1323 AD Treaty of Noteborg ends Swedish-Novgorodian war. Peace of Vilnius between Teutonic Order and Duke Gedemin. [Jelisavcic]

    1324 AD Gedemin annexes all Chornaya Rus (Ukraine) and Podlyakhia into his Lithuanian domains. [Jelisavcic]

    1326 -48 AD Pskov is fearful on the one hand of the Teutonic Order's expansion and on the other of the successful campaigns of Lithuania against Novgorod, which have laid bare the latter's inability not only to defend Pskov but itself as well from Lithuanian threats. Pskov seeks military-political dependancy on Lithuania. This brings about rising tensions between Novgorod and Pskov and eventually an independent Pskov Republic. [Jelisavcic]

    1327 AD Lithuania begins war against Teutonic Order and concludes treaty with the Kypchak Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1343 AD Battle of the Little Borka River. A two-year long rebellion in Estonia precipitates a war between Pskov and the Livonian Order. Near Neigauzen the Pskovites are victorious, but no formal treaty results. [Jelisavcic]

    1362-63 AD Battle of the River Sinivody at the Southern Bug (left bank tributary of the Bug). This battle has been mistakenly called the Blue water failing to indicate the precise location. Grand Prince Olgerd of Lithuania is victorious over Kadlubak, (Kachibei, Demetrius) - Tatar chieftans from Crimea (Mangup?) Meanwhile the Teutonic Order with German and French knights besieges Kovno. Olgerd and Keistut bring Russian-Lithuanian army but decide against battle and the fortress falls. [Jelisavcic]

    1392 AD Vitvot, son of Keistut, turns away from the Teutonic Order and by Treaty of Ostrow receives the Duchy of Trokai and part of Volhynia with its castle at Lusk. [Jelisavcic]

    1395 AD Vitvot captures Smolensk while Vasilii remains neutral. [Jelisavcic]

    1399 AD Khan Timur Qutlugh defeats Toqtamish and Grand Duke Vitvot (Vytautus) at Vorskla River on 12 August. Many Lithuanian princes are killed. This is decisive blow to Lithuanian efforts on Black Sea coast. Prince Yurii Svyatoslavich regains his city at Smolensk, but loses it again in 1403-4. [Jelisavcic]

15th Century:
    1407 AD Battle of the Field of Logozovitskoye. Following three years of light skirmishing and raids by both sides, the conflict between Novgorod and Livonians turns serious. The main leaders of Novgorod and Pskov take their polki as well as three Novgorod posadniki to this battle where they are all killed. Magistrate Conrad von Vietinghof leads the Livonians. The attempt to compel Pskov to surrender in 1408 and 1409 results in a peace treaty signed at Kirumpyaya in 1410. [Jelisavcic]

    1410 AD Battle of Tannenberg,( or Grundvald or Salgir) On 15 July Vitvot with Polish, Lithuanian and Russian troops defeats Teutonic Knights of Ulrich von Jungingen. Tens of thousands of Teutonic knights are killed. But Livonian Order stays out of the battle. [Jelisavcic]

    1444-8 AD Novgorod at war with Livonian Order. [Jelisavcic]

    1448 AD Battle on the Narova River. Prince Vasilii Vasil'yevich of Suzdal defeats the Livonian German army. By sea at the isthmus of the River Narova the Novgorodian boats assault the Livonian ships andcapture two barons and 84 knights. [Jelisavcic]

    1471 AD Livonian Lithuanian alliance is blocked when Livonian Master Wolthus von Herse is deposed. [Jelisavcic]

    1475 AD December - Ottomans capture Mangup after 3-month siege, during which 5 assaults fail, by using heavy artillery. Prince Alexander has 300 Wallach mercenaries and possibly 15,000 local men. Mengli Girei taken to Constantinople then returned to be Khan. Prince Alexander (of?) taken and beheaded after his wife and daughters are given to Sultan's harem. [Jelisavcic]

    1480 AD Livonian Order fails to capture Pskov. [Jelisavcic]

    In Nordic affairs, Ivan III concluded an offensive alliance with Hans of Denmark and maintained a regular correspondence with Emperor Maximilian I, who called him a "brother". He built a strong citadel in Ingria (named Ivangorod after himself), which proved of great consequence to Russians in the war with Sweden, which had been preceded by Ivan's detention of the Hanseatic merchants trading in Novgorod.[Wikipedia]

    "Side by side with the taxpaying urban posad in most towns were priviledged properties called 'white places' (i.e. untaxed), which competed with the trade of the posad. They could be enclaves of... the tsar's artisans, Europeans or Tatars..." [Freeze, p 35]

    1494 AD Ivan III begins campaign against Lithuania - Ivan closes Novgorod to trade with Hanse. [Jelisavcic]

16th Century:

    1501 AD Treaty of Wenden unites Livonian Order and Lithuanians against Ivan III. Alexander now king of Poland plans to get Nogai to attack Kazan while Great Horde and Lithuanians attack Seversk. Ivan on defensive, but defeats Livonians at Helmed.[Jelisavcic]

    1512 AD War between Moscow and Lithuania resumes. [Jelisavcic]

    In 1547 Hans Schlitte, the agent of Ivan, employed handicraftsmen in Germany for work in Russia. However all these handicraftsmen were arrested in Lübeck at the request of Poland and Livonia. The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the river Narva in 1550 and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia. Russia remained largely isolated from sea trade. [Wikipedia]

    Although Khan Devlet I Giray of Crimea repeatedly devastated Moscow region and even set Moscow on fire in 1571, the Czar supported Yermak's conquest of Tatar Siberia, adopting a policy of empire-building, which led him to launch a victorious war of seaward expansion to the west, only to find himself fighting the Swedes, Lithuanians, Poles, and the Livonian Teutonic Knights. For twenty-four years the Livonian War dragged on, damaging the Russian economy and military and failing to gain any territory for Russia. In the 1560s the combination of drought and famine, Polish-Lithuanian raids, Tatar attacks, and the sea-trading blockade carried out by the Swedes, Poles and the Hanseatic League devastated Russia. The price of grain increased by a factor of ten. Epidemics of the plague killed 10,000 in Novgorod. In 1570 the plague killed 600-1000 in Moscow daily. Ivan's closest advisor, Prince Andrei Kurbsky, defected to the Lithuanians, headed the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki. This treachery deeply hurt Ivan. [Wikipedia]

    Boris Feodorovich Godunov was the most famous member of an ancient Russian family of Tatar origin, which migrated from the Horde to Kostroma in the early 14th century. Godunov's career of service began at the court of Ivan the Terrible. As regent and tsar, his policy was generally pacific, but prudent. In 1595 he recovered from Sweden the towns lost during the former reign. Five years previously he had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow. Towards Turkey he maintained an independent attitude, supporting an anti-Turkish faction in the Crimea, and furnishing the emperor (Holy Roman?) with subsidies in his war against the sultan. [Wikipedia]

    He saw the need for Russia to catch up to the intellectual progress of the West and was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a great scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, the first to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia. . [Wikipedia]

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