Russian Interaction with Foreign Lands

Appanage Period

Another work-in-progress
Updated 6 October 2007

13th Century:

    1237-8 AD Batu leads second Mongol invasion to conquer Rus, Cumans (Polovtsi, or Kypchaks) and Crimea -Yurii II Vsyevolodovich , Grand Prince of Vladimir, killed in battle with Mongols as are his two sons. Ryazan captured on 12 Dec 1237, then Moscow, then Vladimir on 8 Feb.[Jelisavcic]

    1238 after week-long siege. Yuri II killed on 4 March on Siti River. One Mongol detachment takes Rostov, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, and Vologda. Another Mongol detachment attacks Peryeyaslavl, Tver, Uglich, Kashin and Torshok. At Tver the son of prince of Novgorod and Peryeyaslavl is killed. Torshok is heavily fortified city and holds out for 2 weeks until 5 March, disrupting the Mongol time table. Kashin is first mentioned in chronicles in this campaign. Mongols spend rest of 1238 regrouping and obtaining more horses in steppe region.[Jelisavcic]

    1238-46 AD Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich, prince of Peryeyaslavl, and sometime elected prince of Novgorod, who luckily was in Lithuania when the Mongols arrived, elected Grand Prince of Vladimir after death of his brother, Yuri II, at Siti River, in Sonkovski rayon. He dies in Mongolia in 1246. [Jelisavcic]

    1239 AD Monka leads Mongol detachment to conquer Alans and Circassians in north Caucasus region. Batu completes subjugation of Kypchaks except for 40,000 who flee to Hungary. Mongols conquer Tibet. Mongols plunder Sudak, also devastate Theodoro (capital at Mangup-kale) and impose tribute, Tatar capital at Solkhat (Eski-krim), Mongols sack Chernigiv and Pereiaslavl. Chernigiv is defended by Mstislav Glebovich. [Jelisavcic]

    1239 AD The Lithuanians capture Smolensk but are then chased out by Yaroslav. [Jelisavcic]

    1239 AD Aleksandr Yaroslavich (later Nevski) builds wooden palisade fortress on the Shelon' river near Novgorod. Following his marriage to Aleksandra Praskov'ya, daughter of the Polotsk prince Bryachislav at Toropets, Aleksandr returns to Novgorod. He then founds the city, Porkhov on the Shelon' and builds more palisaded fortresses in the region. But Mindovg chases Bryachislav out of Polotsk and places his own son-in-law, Tovtivila, on the throne, thereby taking control of the entire Polotsk region. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD Batu's cousin, Mengu, who had already secretly entered the city on reconaissance, sends emissaries to Mikhail Vsyevolodovich who is ruling Kyiv, offering terms. Instead Mikhail has the ambassadors killed, then he and Daniil Romanovich flee the city. Mongol campaign sacks Kyiv in the fall. The Mongol army is spread thin over winter from Caucasus and Crimea to Carpathians. Many Kypchak flee to Hungary where they settle. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD Aleksandr Yaroslavich defeats Swedish force led by Earl Birger, who is attempting to block Novgorod's access to the sea, on Neva River, receives name "Nevski". Livonian Knights move to capture Pskov but their allies in the Teutonic Order are diverted by the call from the Duke of Silesia to aid Poland against the Mongols. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD The knights of the Order with detachments from the Dutch king and Bishop of Derpt defeat the Pskovian army led by the voyevode Gavrilya Gorislavich and capture the fortress at Izborsk, killing all the local inhabitants. On 16 Sept the German knights aided by Germanophile Pskovian boyars capture the city. Aleksandr Yaroslavich's army is too weak for him to assist. Aleksandr flees Novgorod to Peryeyaslavl. The Novgorodians receive help from Andrei, another son of Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich, but he is unable to stop the German advance.[Jelisavcic]

    1241 AD Mongols resume offensive. Mongol detachment wins battle at Liegnitz (April 9th) over Germans lead by Henrick the Good, where many Teutonic Knights are killed, and main army of Batu and Subudai destroy Hungarians led by King Bela IV at confluence of Tisa and Sajo Rivers on 11 April. Northern detachment turns south from Silesia to move rapidly throught Bohemia and Moravia. Bohemian king Vaclav wins minor skirmish over one Mongol band near Kladsko, but the Mongols are in a hurry to reach Hungary and don't take time to bother with Bohemians. Hungarian king Bela rallies support in Croatia. Emperor Frederick II, Pope Gregory IX, and various western rulers all issue appeals to each other to move against the Mongols, but no one makes a move. [Jelisavcic]

    1241 AD Livonian Knights with support from remaining Teutonic Order begin campaign against Novgorod and capture Pskov. With support of mercenary Lithuanians, Ests and the always-ready-for-a-fight, Livs, they take Kopor'ye and Tesov on the Oredezh River and approach Novgorod. Aleksandr moves around this force and retakes Kopor'ye, hanging traitors amongst the Chud and Vod clans. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Batu receives word of Ogodei's death and starts back toward Mongolia in order to influence next election. Tatar-Mongols again sack Crimea. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Batu establishes khanate of Ulus of Jochi (Great or Kypchak khanate) at Sarai on Volga. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Livonian and Teutonic Knights march against Novgorod. Andrei Yaroslavich is sent by the new grand prince, of Vladimir, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich to assist Aleksandr at Novgorod. After liberating Pskov, they meet the Germans at the "Uzmen" at the Vorontei stone and defeat them on 5 April at frozen Lake Peipus (lake Chud). 500 knights are killed and 50 taken prisoner. (estimates vary greatly) At this Prussians revolt. [Jelisavcic]

    1243 AD Batu confirms Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich as Grand Prince of Vladimir and the yarlik for Kyiv. Yaroslav sends his son, Konstantin, to Sarai where he remained 2 years. Yaroslav is then summoned to the Mongol capital for the election of the new great Khan. [Jelisavcic]

    In 1238, when the Mongols first invaded Russia and his elder brother Yuri was killed in battle, Yaroslav II was crowned grand prince. He attempted to restore the cities of Vladimir-Suzdal after the Mongol conquest. In 1243, he was summoned by Batu Khan to his capital Sarai. After a lengthy conference, he returned to Vladimir with honours. Two years later, he was again summoned to the east, this time by Güyük Khan in Karakorum. There he was poisoned by the khan's wife and died a week after he had been allowed to return home. [Wikipedia]

    "[The Mongols] halted their advance only in September 1242, when their leader Batu was recalled to Mongolia..." "peasants who were not slain or enslaved fled..." [Freeze, p 14]

    The Rus Grand Princes had to travel to the Tatar capital in Sarai on the lower Volga (a great trade route) to obtain the patent of authority to rule in Rus. Their tribute to the Mongols included "men, livestock, furs, and other valuable products" [Freeze, p 15]

    1243-44 AD Rostislav Mikhailovich of Chernigiv, who had married Anna, the daughter of Bela IV of Hungary, brings the Little Poland king Boleslav the Shameful into the fight for Galich. Daniil Romanovich combines forces with Conrad of Mazovia and the Lithuanian prince Mindovg and wins victory over Rostislav. [Jelisavcic]

    1245 AD Princes Daniil of Galicia and Vasilko of Volynia defeat Prince Rostislav of Chernigiv (despite his support by Poles and Hungarians). [Jelisavcic]

    1245 AD John of Plano Carpini begins journey as Papal envoy to Mongol khan at Qaraqorum - Daniil of Galicia goes to Sarai to obtain yarlik and avoid a Mongol governor going to Galicia. Batu confirms Daniil Romanovich as Prince of Galicia and Volynia.[Jelisavcic]

    Italian Friar John Pian de Carpine traveled through the Rus lands on his way to the Court of Kuyuk Khan as the envoy of Pope Innocent IV. He speaks of the generous hospitality he received from Lord Vassilko who provided him escorts through the Rus lands, the ambassadors from "Ruscia" to the Tatars, frequent trips of the Rus leaders to the khan, translating the Pope's letters into "Ruthenian" in addition to Saracen and Tartar, the presence of Duke Ieroslav of Susdal at the khan's court and his later death there, the assistance of a certain goldsmith Ruthenian named Cosmas, the presence of other Ruthenians in the khan's service as clerks some for as long as thirty years, the khan's friendliness toward Christianity, Friar John's attempt to get the Rus to submit to the Pope, and ambassadors from the Rus to the Pope. [Rockhill]

    1246 AD Daniil aquieses to Khan's demand for tribute. Mikhail Vsyevolodovich, Grand Prince of Kyiv and Prince of Chernigiv, also goes to see Batu but refuses to kowtow and is executed. This strengthens Daniil's position. [Jelisavcic]

    1246-48 AD Kuriltay electes Guyuk, Great Khan of Mongols; Yaroslav II, Grand prince of Vladimir: Kilij-Arslan IV, Seljuk sultan: David V, King of Georgia, are among the attendees along with the envoy of Pope Innocent. Guyuk decides to concentrate Mongol effort against Egypt in cooperation with Christians in Palestine. Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich dies in Mongolia (poisoned?). [Jelisavcic]

    1246 AD Daniil reorganizes Galician army along Mongol lines and equips it with Mongol arms and armor. [Jelisavcic]

    1246 AD John de Plano Carpini passes through Ukraine but not Crimea on way to Sarai. [Jelisavcic]

    1248-52 AD Guyuk gives yarlik to Andrei II Yaroslavich, as Grand Prince of Vladimir and appoints his brother, Aleksandr (Nevski), as Prince of Kyiv. Khan Guyuk dies in 1248, Mongol campaign to Palestine put on hold. In 1249 Andrei returns to Vladimir and Aleksandr goes to Novgorod instead of Kyiv. [Jelisavcic]

    1249 AD Mikhail Yaroslavich is killed during battle of Protva River against Lithuanians. [Jelisavcic]

    1249 AD Sudak celebrates "liberation" from Mongol-Tatars, but they pay tribute for the privilege of local self-government. Tatar capital in Crimea is at Solkhat, a one-day trip across the mountains from Sudak, on the caravan route to Perekop. Arab author Ibn-abd-az-Zakhir mentions that at Solkhat there are Alans, Russians, and Kypchaks among the diverse population. [Jelisavcic]

    1250s AD Lithuanian tribes under strong leadership of princes such as Mendovg with their druzhina begin offensive movement to south and east into Ukraine and Russia. They gain control of Grodno, Volkovysk, Slonim, Polotsk and Vitebsk. In the process the Lithuanians absorb Russian military skills and culture. [Jelisavcic]

    1251-59 AD Mongke, Great Khan of the Mongols, as result of alliance between himself and Batu and over wishes of descendents of Jagatay and Ogodei. Batu's son, Sartak, becomes Christian and is placed in charge of Russian affairs. [Jelisavcic]

    1251 AD Daniil of Galicia marries daughter of Mendovg of Lithuania as one of a series of dynastic marriages and attempts to acquire an ally against the Mongols.[Jelisavcic]

    1251 AD On death of Svyatoslav in 1248 AndreiII Yaroslavich of Suzdal is appointed Grand Prince. Aleksandr goes again to Sarai for confirmation by Batu, but Andrei refuses to go. Sartak leads Mongol army to Vladimir in 1252 and defeats Andrei near Peryeyaslavl-in-Suzdalia then devastates region. Andrei flees to Novgorod and then to Sweden to evade Mongol pursuit. Sartak gives yarlik for Vladimir to Aleksandr. [Jelisavcic]

    Andrey Yaroslavich challenged the Mongols. He married a daughter of Danylo of Halych, who was the Mongols' avowed enemy. A year later, his uncle Svyatoslav went to the Horde to secure the throne for himself. He was followed by Alexander Nevsky, who blamed Andrey for appropriating a portion of tribute due to the Horde. The khan sent a punitive expedition which defeated Andrey near Pereslavl. Novgorod didn't want to give him shelter, either, so that Andrey had to escape to Kolyvan and then to Sweden. In 1256 Andrey travelled to Sarai to ask pardon for his former infidelity and returned to Rus. [Wikipedia]

    Alexander Nevsky was summoned by the Novgorodians in 1236 to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders. After the Swedish army had landed at the confluence of the rivers Izhora and Neva, Alexander and his small army suddenly attacked the Swedes on July 15, 1240 and defeated them. After Pskov had been invaded by the crusading Livonian Knights, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander. In spring of 1241 he returned from his exile, gathered an army, and drove out the invaders. [Wikipedia]

    After the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia’s Northwest. He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, they signed a first peace treaty between Russia and Norway in 1251. Alexander led his army to Finland and successfully routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. He dismissed the Papal curia’s attempts to cause war between Russia and the Golden Horde. Thanks to his friendship with Sartaq Khan, Alexander was installed as the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1252. A decade later, Alexander died in a town of Gorodets-on-the-Volga on his way back from Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde. [Wikipedia]

    1252 AD Mongka orders new census and conscription throughout empire in support of campaign in China. This increases Mongol pressure in Russia. Mongols begin conquest of Sung empire, south China. [Jelisavcic]

    1253, 21 May Friar William de Rubriquis passes through Sudak on his way from Acre to Sarai and Mongolia. He describes it as major trade center, and discusses Crimea in general. He notes that he met there some of the same merchants he had met in Constantinople. (Did these include Venetians?) [Jelisavcic]

    William of Rubruck traveled among the Mongols from 1253-55. His account mentions merchants from Roscia coming to Cherson and the covered carts that the Ruthenians should carry their furs in - the commodities he mentions include vair, minever, other costly furst, cotton or bombax (bombast/cotton) cloths, silk stuffs and sweet-smelling spices. There was an area of brine springs in the territory of the Comans that was supposedly the source of salt for all Ruscia. The Mongols receive from Ruscia costly furs of many kinds. The Ruthenian Christians who lived among the Mongols and wished to strictly follow their religion refused to drink kumiss because they considered it the same as carrion or sacrifices to idols and idea "which has been implanted among them by the Ruthenians of whom there are great numbers there." William crossed the river Tanias (Don) at a village of Ruthenians that had been established by Batu and Sartach to ferry envoys and merchants to the Mongols. These Ruthenians gave William food, including a fresh eel-pout, rye bread, a little meat, and dried fish. He says he doesn't know whether Sartach is a Christian, but that Sartach is on the road that all the Christians, including Ruthenians, must take to carry presents to his father and he shows himself most attentive to them all. William was afraid of the Mongol's slaves, including Ruthenians, Hungarians and Alans, "of whom there are very great numbers among them" because they would band together as robbers at night. On the Etilia River (Volga?) the Tartars made a new village with a mixed population of Ruthenians and Saracens to ferry envoys across. He speaks of a woman from Metz in Lorraine named Paquette who belonged to the ordu of the khan's Christian wife and who was married to a young Ruthenian husband who knew how to make houses. At Easter a great number of Christians came to him, including Ruthenians, all of whom had not seen the sacrament since their capture. They confessed to theft, excusing themselves because their masters did not provide enough to survive, and of being obliged to go to wars as soldiers of the khan. He said there was one church of Christians in Karakorum. [Rockhill]

    1253 AD Daniil Romanovich of Volynia-Galicia seeks aid from western states (Hungary and Germany) and the Pope to start a crusade against the Mongols, without success. Tatar army of Nevruya attacks Peryeyaslav'-Zaleskii and another of Kurems attacks south Russia. These are driven back by Daniil. Daniil then wages war against Mindovg in Lithuania. Daniil attempts dynastic alliances. He marries sister of Tovtivil of Lithuania while his son, Roman, marries Gertrud, daughter of the Austrian prince Fredrick. Daniil receives title of King of Galicia from Pope in 1254. [Jelisavcic]

    1255 AD Aleksandr Nevski and his brother, Andrei in battle for throne of Vladimir, Yaroslav III Yaroslavich of Tver supports Andrei. The Tatars interveen and defeat Andrei on Klyazma river. Yaroslav flees, his wife is killed and his son taken prisoner. [Jelisavcic]

    1256 AD Sartaq, Khan of the Kipchak Khanate, dies shortly after accession. (maybe poisoned) He is succeeded by his brother, Ulagchi, who calls all Russian princes to Sarai and confirms their yarliks and orders a new census and further conscription. [Jelisavcic]

    1256 AD Daniil of Galicia begins to defy Mongols by driving their troops out of Podolia and Volynia. Mongols are busy in northern Russia and conductd only small, local punitive raids before withdrawing into steppe. Andrei II returns from Sweden and is given yarlik for Gorodetz and Nizhni Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1258-1266 AD Ulagchi dies, then Batu's brother, Berke, a Moslem convert, becomes Khan of Kypchak Horde, Mongol census of Rus begins. Berke supports alliance with Mamlukes in Egypt against his cousin, Hulagu. Berke shifts Mongol attention from northern Russia to Middle East and western Russia. [Jelisavcic]

    1258-9 AD Aleksandr Nevski and Andrii go with Mongol officials to Novgorod to impress on people the futility of resistance. Nevertheless Novgorodians start a riot and Aleksandr has to use troops from Vladimir to protect Mongol officials and suppress riot. The census proceeded and Novgorod citizens are conscripted into Mongol army for duty in China. Novgorod avoids stationing of permanent Mongol officials. [Jelisavcic]

    1258 AD Yaroslav III Yaroslavich, receives yarlik for Tver principality. [Jelisavcic]

    1258 AD Mendovg changes policy of alliance with Daniil and arrests Daniil's son, Roman, leaving Daniil without an ally against the Mongols. [Jelisavcic]

    In 1252, Yaroslav III Yaroslavich and his brother Andrey seized Alexander's capital, Pereslavl-Zalessky. Reinforced by Tatar units, Alexander presently took it back. In 1258 Yaroslav visited the khan's capital in Sarai, and two years later led the Novgorod army against the Teutonic Knights. Upon Alexander's death in 1263, Yaroslav quarrelled with Andrey as to who should become Grand Duke next. They went to the Golden Horde for arbitration, which was in favour of Yaroslav. Later, there was another quarrel, and Yaroslav, on surrendering Novgorod to his nephew, accompanied him to Sarai and died on his way back to Tver in 1271. [Wikipedia]

    "...Yaroslav died while 'traveling from the Tatars' - the third time such a phrase had been used [by the chronicles] in connection with a grand prince's death in just over a quarter of a century..." [Fennel, p 138]

    1259 AD Berke replaces Mongol general (Kurumshi) in Podolia with new and more active commander (Burunday) with orders to suppress Daniil's independence and the Lithuanian expansion. Burunday orders Daniil and Russian princes to support his initial campaign against Lithuanians. Combined Mongol-Russian army raids Lithuania and seizes booty, but Lithuanian army avoids battle. [Jelisavcic]

    1259 AD Conflict between Novgorod and Hanse league over Lubeck trade ends in June with new treaty. [Jelisavcic]

    1259-61 AD Michael VIII, Paleologus, Byzantine emperor at Nicea (at Constantinople until 1282) has Englishmen Varangian guard. [Jelisavcic]

    1260 AD Burunday leads Mongol army into Volynia and orders Russian princes to destroy their own town fortifications. Daniil flees to Poland. Russians comply by destroying forts. Mongols establish tax and conscription districts throughout southwest Rus region under supervision of their own officials. Burunday then withdraws Mongol army back to Dnieper steppe. [Jelisavcic]

    1260 AD Battle of Durben, Lithuanians led by Mindovg defeat Teutonic Order when landsknekht flee the field disrupting the battle order, leading to a new revolt by Prussians. The Livonian Order magistrate, Borkhardt von Hornkhauzen, the Marshall von Botal' and the Swedish Hertzog , Carl all perish. The Danish- Swedish army is severly defeated. 150 titled knights fall and 14 are taken prisoner, of which 8 are burned at the stake to appease Lithuanian pagan gods. Curland defects from Christiandom and Prussia returns to Prussians. Mindovg is stripped of his title as Roman king. But the Baltic region seeks his protection from the Teutonic knights and he also defends the Rus population of Chyornaya Rusi (Ukraine) and Byelorussia, Volynia and Pskov. Mindovg sends ambassadors to Vladimir to unite against the Teutonic Order and Aleksandr accepts. But nothing comes of this. [Jelisavcic]

    1261 AD March, Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptures Constantinople with Genoese help. He already has treaty of Nymphaeam with Genoa favorable to them, that closed Black Sea to all but Genoa and Pisa. Venetian quarter of Constantinople burned. Michael eventually gives one daughter each in marriage to Mongol Khans Abaga and Nogay. At first he blocks trade and communications between Kypchak Horde and Egypt, but later is forced to reopen it. [Jelisavcic]

    1261 AD Orthodox archbishop established at Sarai, capital of Kypchak Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1262 AD Revolts in Rus towns against Mongol tax collectors centered in Suzdalia towns, Rostov, Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Suzdal. Aleksandr Nevski goes to Berke to plead forbearance and pardon for his people. Berke agrees. [Jelisavcic]

    1262 AD Lithuanians raid Volynia. [Jelisavcic]

    1263-72 AD Aleksandr dies on return journey at Gorodets on the Volga. Berke gives yarlik of Vladimir to Aleksandr's brother, Yaroslav III of Tver, making Tver the political center of Rus. He is also the appointed prince of Novgorod, but his policy to expand Tver at Novgorod's expense fails. Aleksandr's son, Dmitrii, becomes prince of Peryeyaslavl-Zaleski, the family base holding. [Jelisavcic]

    1263 AD Following death of Aleksandr Nevski and assassination of Mindovg in the fall by his opponents, Dovmont of Nal'shenai and Troinat of Zhematiisk, the hopes for a united Russian, Lithuanian block against the Teutonic knights are put to rest forever. [Jelisavcic]

    1263-4 AD Berke leads Kypchak Horde army into Transcaucasia and defeats Hulagu. Both armies suffer heavy losses in battle seriously weakening Mongol power. Berke levies conscription on Russia for troops for campaigns in Caucasus and TransCaucasus. Kypchak Horde is now firmly allied with Mamluks in Egypt against Il-Khans in Persia. Many Egyptian troops continue to come from Kypchak Horde including Russians and Alans. [Jelisavcic]

    1265 AD Byzantine-Venetian trade treaty reopens Black Sea for Venetian traders.[Jelisavcic]

    1267 AD The Novgorod posadnik, Mikhail Fyodorovich, and the veche call for aid from the son of Aleksandr Nevski, Dmitrii Alexandrovich, and his Pereyaslav polki. Upon learning of the call to arms in Novgorod the Germans at Derpt-Yur'yev, the leaders of Riga and the Order representatives send emmisaries to Novgorod to ask why war preparations are being made. [Jelisavcic]

    1267-80 AD Berke dies in 1266 in Tbilisi during the campaign and his army retires across the Caucasus. He has no living son. Mangu Temir, grandson of Batu is elected Khan of Kypchak Horde. Mangu-Temir is a Sky worshipper, which greatly reduces Kypchak pressure to support Moslems. He grants yarlik of immunity from taxes and conscription to the Russian Church. Nogai is assigned to command the Mongol armies in the Balkans. [Jelisavcic]

    1267 AD Qubilay begins campaign again in South China with assistance of detachments from both Kypchak Horde and the Il-Khans (Including Russian units). [Jelisavcic]

    1268 AD Battle of River Kegola. Novgorod is now prepared for war. In January they send army against Danes at Rakovor in Estonia. On 12 February they are ambushed by troops of the very cities in Livonia that had insisted on peace in 1267. Novgorod looses its posadnik, the tysyatskii, and many polk commanders in a bloody battle into the night. By morning the Livonians move on to loot the region around Pskov while Dmitrii retains the battlefield, hence can claim victory. [Jelisavcic]

    1269 - trade agreement between Novgoord, Lubeck, and Gothland. [Michell]

    1271 AD Emir Nogai starts Mongol offensive against Constantinople to reopen Bosporus to traffic between Egypt and Kypchak Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1272-76 AD Khan Mangu-Temir gives yarlik to Vasilii Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir- from Kostroma. He was another son of Yaroslav and Rostislava. Khan sends troops to support Vasilii's claim to the title as prince of Novgorod against Novgorodian opposition. [Jelisavcic]

    "The number of Tatar troops now stationed in the country was considerable; this is evident from the ease with which both Vasily and his nephew Svyatoslav had been able to call upon Tatar reinforcements against Novgorod in 1272. But while these reinforcements had been under the control of Russian commanders..." [Fennel, p 140]

    A Russian prince is recorded as having sent to the Horde for military assistance against internal enemies... in 1272 or 1273, two Russian princes fight against the prince of Novgorod with Tatar detachments on their side... reminiscent of the practice of prince fighting prince with the assistance of the Pechenegs, the Polovtsians and other steppe nomads... [Fennel, p 128, 129, see also page 139, 141, 142, 146, 147, etc.]

    1275 AD Qubilay orders new census and conscription in Russia for campaign in south China.[Jelisavcic]

    1276-81 AD Vasilii dies as last of the Yaroslavichi, leaving no brothers. Mangu-temir gives yarlik to Aleksandr's son, Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich, of Peryeyaslavl- Suzdalia as Grand Prince of Vladimir (1st time). He also gives him the title of prince of Novgorod.[Jelisavcic]

    1277 AD Mangu-temir begins offensive against Alans in north Caucasus and orders Russian princes to bring their druzhina in support. Aleksandr Nevski's third son, Andrei, among others, participates. The Russians capture the main Alan fortified city. [Jelisavcic]

    "The majority of the remaining princes were summoned to Saray in 1277... to be obliged to take part in a Caucasian campagn under Mangu Temir's command"[Fennel, p 145-6]

    1279 AD Rus princes join Mongol forces in war against Lithuania. [Jelisavcic]

    1279 AD Papal legate Philipp of Fermo, issues orders showing his concern that the Hungarian king, Laslo IV, is living according to the Kypchak manner rather than as a Christian. [Jelisavcic]

    1280 AD All Russian princes except Grand Prince Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich go to meet Khan Tuda-Mangu. Dmitrii is busy attacking Novgorod. Tuda-Mangu cancels his yarlik and gives Vladimir to Dmitri's younger brother, Andrei prince of Kostroma and Gorodets, Dmitri refuses to surrender the yarlik and conflict follows. Tuda-Mangu sends Mongol troops to assist Andrei. Mongols pillage Vladimir region and install Andrei on throne. [Jelisavcic]

    1281 AD Treaty between Byzantine Mikhail VIII Paleologus and Egyptian Sultan Quallou to protect merchants trading at Sudak (slave trade). [Jelisavcic]

    1281-83 AD Andrei Aleksandrovich, Grand Prince - from Gorodets - He brings Tatar troops in support against Tver and Torzhok. [Jelisavcic]

    1281 AD Dmitrii goes to Nogai and receives yarlik for Vladimir and troops for support to regain the throne. Andrei is forced to give up and move to Kostroma. However, Tuda-Mangu continues to consider Andrei the legal Grand Prince. Rostov princes likewise remain loyal to Tuda-Mangu. [Jelisavcic]

    1281-1318 AD Mikhail Yaroslavich, younger brother of Svyatoslav, is prince of Tver with his mother, Ksyena, as regent at first. [Jelisavcic]

    1282 AD Nogai sends 4,000 select Mongol (Kypchak) troops to support Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII, but Michael dies before the campaign begins.[Jelisavcic]

    1282 AD Orthodox bishopric of Sudak has its own metropolitan. Church accounts mention that by mid 13th century population of Sudak is 8300. (Possibly only males counted). The account lists Greeks, Tatars, Armenians, and others. [Jelisavcic]

    1285-6 AD Nogai leads his own Mongol (Kypchak) troops in offensive into Hungary from the south. Tele-Buga leads the army of the main Kypchak Horde into Slovakia from the north but is stopped by snow in the Carpathian Mountains and forced to retire to Galicia, which he then loots in compensation for missing out in Hungary. [Jelisavcic]

    1286 AD Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver leads united troops of Tver, Moscow, Novo-torzhok, and Rzhev against Lithuanian invasion. In following two years he shows independence from Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich. [Jelisavcic]

    1286 AD Nogai arrives in Galicia to work together with Tele-Buga to attack Poland. They order Russian princes to join as well. Nogai attacks Krakow and Tele-Buga moves toward Sandomir. [Jelisavcic]

    1287 AD After looting Poland both Mongol armies return to Galicia and Volynia to complete the destruction there. This destruction reduces the local ability to resist the subsequent advance by Lithuania. [Jelisavcic]

    1287 AD Baptism of one of Nogai's wives at Chufut-Kale. [Jelisavcic]

    1288 AD Galician chronicles mention presence of merchants from Sudak, Germany, and Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1289 AD Rostov people try to use opportunity to rebel against Mongols, but revolt is suppressed by Russian princes with Mongol aid. [Jelisavcic]

    The popular upheaval in Rostov in 1289 resulted in the expulsion of the Tatars from the city. [Fennel, p 154]

    1291 AD Nogai captures Tele-Buga and has him executed. He then places Tokhta on throne as Khan. Tokhta revitalizes Horde and its army. The Russian princes split with some including Andrei and the Rostov princes going to swear allegiance to Tokhta and others including Dmitrii and Michael of Tver going to swear allegiance to Nogai. [Jelisavcic]

    1293 - Lubeck wins control over Novgorod Kontor from Visby (Gotland). [Chronicle of the Hanse]

    1293 AD Tokhta confirms Andrei as Grand Prince of Vladimir and sends Mongol army to support Andrei in battle against Dmitrii. Result is extensive destruction in entire Vladimir princedom and looting of Vladimir, Moscow and other towns. Tver tries to resist against another Mongol army. Dmitrii flees to Pskov and then dies. [Jelisavcic]

    1297 AD Tokhta calls all Russian princes to meeting at Vladimir with his representative and forces them to unite in his support. War between Tokhta and Nogai between the Volga and the Pruth. Nogai brings his army from Bulgaria and Romania to the battle between the Pruth and Dniester Rivers. Nogai wins and drives Tokhta back across the Don River but fails to complete the pursuit and follow up the victory. [Jelisavcic]

    1298 AD Tatars sack Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1298-1300 AD Steppe war among Kypchak clans, Nogai, instead of following up against Tokhta, turns into Crimea. He captures Eski-Kerman, Chufut Kale, attacks Kaffa, Chersonesus and Sudak. Acceleration of decline of Chersonesus with Tatars controlling western Crimea. [Jelisavcic]

    1299 AD During steppe war Metropolitan Maksim leaves Kyiv for Vladimir. Kyiv is now too unsafe a location for church headquarters. [Jelisavcic]

    1299 -1300 AD Khan Tokhta has new army and returns to the attack. Battle of (Kukanlyk) Kagamly River, near modern Poltava, Khan Tokhta defeats Nogai, who is killed by one of Tokhta's Russian troops. Tokhta executes him for daring to spill the blood of a Mongol emir. Soon the Nogai Horde divides and some move back to steppes north of the Caspian Sea while others remain along the Dnieper. Tokhta sets about restoring order and power after damage caused by the civil war. [Jelisavcic]

    End 13th early 14th century Arab writers and travelers list Sudak among the most important trading cities of the world - call the Black Sea the "Sudak Sea". [Jelisavcic]

    Prince Fedor Rostislavich of Yaroslavl spent most of his long reign elsewhere - either in the Golden Horde or fighting on the side of the Tatars in Russia and abroad... [Fennel, p 154]

    p 155 - Fedor Rostislavich of Yaroslavl spent many years in the khan's court, married his daughter, became his cupbearer and favorite... [Fennel, p 155]

    "Urban handicrafts virtually disappeared [in the 13th century] as the Tatars continued to conscript the most talented artisans and craftsmen." [MacKenzie and Curran, p 125]

    Summary of 13th Century: The Russian princes of the 13th century fought abroad in Tatar wars, bishops went to the Horde "on behalf of the clergy", three princes married Tatar princesses "not yet the frequent practice it was to become in the fourteenth century..." [Fennel, p 155]

14th Century:
    Mikhail Yaroslavich was the second son of Yaroslav III and succeeded him in 1285. In 1317, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde gave the title of the Grand Prince of Vladimir to Yuri Danilovich, Prince of Moscow, and sent his army to help Yuri in his struggle with Mikhail. On December 22, 1317 Mikhail defeated Yuri. Later, Mikhail was summoned by the Khan and had to go to the Horde to "explain" himself. He was eventually killed in the Horde by Yuri's servants. [Wikipedia]

    Konstantin Borisovich married a Tatar princess in 1302. [Fennel, p 154]

    1300-40 AD Strong Russian unts are maintained in north China and from 1330 as special guards for the Mongol Emperor. These were volunteer recruits, conscripts, and captured prisoners. For instance thousands of Tverians were sent to China after the abortive rebellion in Tver in 1327. [Jelisavcic]

    1301 AD Kaidu tries again to capture Karakorum and dies. Great Khan Timur succeeds in reunited Mongols in that all again recognize his supremacy and agree to negociate their individual differences. With internal unity in the Kypchak Horde and enforced agreement between the Kypchak and Il-Khans the Mongol pressure on Russia increases and the Russians can't get away with rebellions. The Russian princes continue to fight each other. [Jelisavcic]

    1301 AD Daniil Aleksandrovich, of Moscow captures Kolomna from Riazan even though Riazan has support from local Mongol garrison troops. [Jelisavcic]

    1303 AD Daniil takes Mozhaisk from prince of Smolensk and Peryeyaslavl from officers of Andrii Aleksandrovich. Daniel's success starts the trend for Moscow continued by his descendents. Andrii goes to complain to Tokhta who orders a new meeting of Russian princes under his control. [Jelisavcic]

    1304 AD Russian princes attend meeting at Peryeyaslavl under Mongol supervision and are forced to swear allegiance and stop fighting. [Jelisavcic]

    Yuriy Danilovich was the oldest son of Daniel, the first prince of Moscow. Yury had to contend for the title of Grand Duke of Vladimir with Mikhail of Tver. While the Tverian army besieged Pereslavl and Moscow itself, Mikhail went to the Golden Horde, where the Khan elevated him to the supreme position among Russian princes. In the meantime, Yury arranged the murder of prince Konstantin of Ryazan. This unlucky ruler had been captured by Yury's father back in 1302 and had been incarcerated in Moscow since then. By 1314, Yury secured backing from the Metropolitan Peter and formed an alliance with Novgorod against Tver. Now, he felt strong enough to challenge Mikhail of Tver in the Horde. In 1315 Yury went to the Golden Horde and, after spending two years there, constructed an alliance with Uzbeg Khan. Upon Yury's marriage to the khan's sister Konchaka, Uzbeg Khan deposed Mikhail and nominated Yury as the Grand Duke of Vladimir. Back in Russia with a large force of Mongols, Yury approached Tver. However, Yuri's army was defeated. His wife, held in Tver as a hostage, died unexpectedly. Yury availed himself of the confusion that followed and announced to the khan that she had been poisoned on Mikhail's order. The khan summoned both princes to Sarai and, after a trial, had Mikhail executed. Yury returned to Russia, hated by other princes and populace alike, in 1319. He was now entrusted with the task of gathering all-Russian tribute to the Horde. But Mikhail's son and successor, Dmitry the Terrible Eyes, still opposed him. In 1322, Dmitry, seeking revenge for his father's murder, went to Sarai and persuaded the khan that Yury had appropriated a large portion of the tribute due to the Horde. Yury was summoned to the Horde for a trial but, before any formal investigation, was killed by Dmitry. Eight months later, Dmitry was also executed in the Horde. [Wikipedia]

    Shortly before his death, Yury led the army of Novgorod to fight the Swedes and founded a fort in the mouth of the Neva River. Upon signing the Treaty of Orekhovo in 1323, Yury continued eastward and conquered Velikiy Ustyug the same year. [Wikipedia]

    Prince Iurii Daniilovich married Khaz Uzbeck's sister in the early 1300s. [Freeze, p 16]

    1305 AD On death of Andrii Aleksandrovich in 1304 both Mikhail of Tver and Yurii Daniilovich of Moscow seek the yarlik for Vladimir from Tokhta. He gives it to Mikhail. The struggle between Moscow and Tver intensifies. [Jelisavcic]

    1307 AD Khan Tokhta arrests Genoese at Sarai . [Jelisavcic]

    1313-41 AD After Tokhta dies on way to visit Russia in 1312, Osbeg (Uzbek), nephew of Tokhta, is elected Khan of Kypchak Horde. Horde becomes Muslim. He institutes new policy of ordering the Russian princes themselves to collect the taxes instead of the former Mongol baskak. Novgorod seeks to use opportunity of new Khan to weaken Tver. Mikhail II Yaroslavich goes to Sarai to obtain new yarlik as grand prince. Osbeg confirms Mikhail. [Jelisavcic]

    1315 AD Mikhail returns to Tver with yarlik as grand prince of Vladimir. He quickly sets out on campaign against Novgorod. In decisive battle at Torzhok the town is burned and Novgorod looses. Mikhail assesses tribute of 12000 silver grivna on Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1315 AD Yuri III Danilovich of Moscow ordered to Sarai. He takes a large amount of money from Novgorod as a present. He remains 2 years and marries Osbeg's sister Konchaka (Agrafa). [Jelisavcic]

    1316 AD Genoese decree establishes relationship between Kaffa and Sudak for trade and customs duties. Sudak losing its preeminence in favor of Kaffa, which is Genoese main base on Black Sea. [Jelisavcic]

    1316 AD Gedymin becomes Grand Duke of Lithuania and starts building a major power. especially over the western Russian principalities. [Jelisavcic]

    1317 AD Yurii III Danilovich marries Agaf'yei, sister of Khan Ozbek, and receives Yarlik from his Tatar brother-in-law and campaigns against Tver with support from Novgorod. Mikhail II first defeats Novgordians at Torshok and concludes peace with them, Then he defeats Yurii at Bortenovo (40 versts below Tver on Volga) on 22 December, Agafa is captured and dies at Tver. Yurii Danilovich has Tatar detachment of Kavgadi with him. Yurii flees to Sarai and accuses Mikhail of defying Ozbeg. Mikhail must go to Sarai. [Jelisavcic]

    1318 AD Grand Prince Mikhail II Yaroslavich executed on 22 November by Khan Osbeg, Yurii III Danilovich again receives yarlik for Vladimir. Dmitri Mikhailovich (Grozniye Ochi) , becomes prince of Tver, and the principality is divided into udels (appanages) for brothers, Aleksandr Mikhailovich, Konstantin Mikhailovich and Vasilii. They all have roles to play in future. [Jelisavcic]

    1318 AD Novgorodians raid Finland and burn Abo cathedral. [Jelisavcic]

    Dmitri Mikhailovich of Tver"The Terrible Eyes" was a son of Mikhail of Tver and Anna of Kashin. He continued his father's fight with Grand Prince Yuri Danilovich of Moscow for the the yarlik for the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir from the Khan of the Golden Horde. Following Yury's machinations which led the khan to grant the yarlik to Moscow and their father's execution at the Horde in 1318, Dmitri and his brother, Aleksandr, fought a series of battles with Yuri and intrigued against him at the Horde, culminating in Yuri's murder at the Horde (in Sarai) in 1325 probably on Dmitri's orders, although there is no hard evidence of this. Dmitri was himself arrested for the murder and executed in Sarai on the orders of Uzbeg Khan the following year [Wikipedia]

    1320 AD Having lost out to Moscow in the favor of the Kypchak Khan, Tver turns to Lithuania for support. Already Tver has trade relations with Lithuania. Dmitri Mikhailovich marries daughter of Grand Duke Gedemin of Lithuania to seal alliance. [Jelisavcic]

    1320-22 AD Anti-Tatar uprising in Rostov. [Jelisavcic]

    1321 AD Battle of the Irpen' River. Gedemin defeats a coalition of Russian princes and captures Kyiv, leaving a vassal prince as governor. It is not clear if this was Ivan Volodimir Ivanovich, Prince Andrei of Ovruch, or perhaps someone else. Prince Stanislav of Kyiv also is mentioned. [Jelisavcic]

    1321 AD Having collected the Tribute for the Tatars, Yurii Danilovich makes the mistake of stopping in Novgorod. This enables Dmitri Mikhailovich of Tver to get to Sarai ahead of him and convince Khan Ozbeg that Yurii is untrustworthy. [Jelisavcic]

    1321 AD Tatar official Tayanchar goes from Sarai to Tver to assess huge indemnity from Kashin region. Moscow detachments descend on Kashin but Tver lacks strength to help Kashin. [Jelisavcic]

    1322-25 AD Dmitri Mikhailovich goes to Sarai to receive yarlik for Tver, with big present (bribe). Khan Ozbeg decides that Tver is now sufficiently weakened and punished so he takes yarlik from Yurii Danilovich and gives it to Dmitri, Prince of Tver who becomes also Grand Prince of Vladimir by Tatar Yarlik [Jelisavcic]

    1323 AD Pope John XXII (Avignon) sends message to Khan Ozbeg asking for return of stolen church bell at Sudak. [Jelisavcic]

    1323 AD Treaty of Noteborg ends Swedish-Novgorodian war. Peace of Vilnius between Teutonic Order and Duke Gedemin. [Jelisavcic]

    1324 AD Gedemin annexes all Chornaya Rus (Ukraine) and Podlyakhia into his Lithuanian domains. [Jelisavcic]

    1325 AD Dmitri Mikhailovich kills Yurii Danilovich of Moscow at Sarai, Ivan Danilovich (Kalita) becomes udelni prince of Moscow. (grand prince from 1328 - 1340) [Jelisavcic]

    1326 -48 AD Pskov is fearful on the one hand of the Teutonic Order's expansion and on the other of the successful campaigns of Lithuania against Novgorod, which have laid bare the latter's inability not only to defend Pskov but itself as well from Lithuanian threats. Pskov seeks military-political dependancy on Lithuania. This brings about rising tensions between Novgorod and Pskov and eventually an independent Pskov Republic. [Jelisavcic]

    1326-28 AD Khan Ozbeg orders execution of Dmitri Mikhailovich for murder of Yurii Daniilovich. Aleksandr Mikhailovich, of Tver, Dmitri's brother, receives yarlik by Osbeg as Grand Prince of Vladimir. [Jelisavcic]

    1327 AD Tatar ambassador Shevkal, brother of Osbeg, arrives at Tver to collect tribute and faces Anti-Tatar uprising on 15 August. Tatar detachment all killed. In the fall Ivan I Daniilovich Kalitka of Moscow obtains huge Tatar army to attack Tver. They burn the city and also Kashin and Novo-Torshok and entire region. [Jelisavcic]

    1327 AD Lithuania begins war against Teutonic Order and concludes treaty with the Kypchak Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1328 AD Aleksandr Mikhailovich removed as Grand Prince, due to uprising in Tver. He flees with his family to Novgorod and then to Pskov. Then his brother, Konstantin, becomes prince of Tver. To avoid more dangers he becomes ally of Ivan Kalitka.[Jelisavcic]

    1329 AD King John of Bohemia Crusade. Prussia at war with Poles and Lithuanians. English knights are serving as temporary help to Teutonic Order in Lithuania from 1329 to 1408. [Jelisavcic]

    Alexander I, Grand Prince of Tver, a second son of Prince Mikhail of Tver by his wife Anna of Kashin.

    In 1326, he succeeded his childless brother Dmitry the Terrible Eyes who had been executed on behest of Uzbeg Khan in the Horde. The next year a Tatar official, Shevkal (cousin of Uzbeg), arrived from the Horde, with a large retinue. They took up residence at Aleksandr's palace and, according to the chronicles, terrorized the city, randomly robbing and killing. Rumors spread that Shevkal wanted to kill the prince, occupy the throne for himself and introduce Islam. When, on 15 August 1327, the Tatars tried to take a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob of furious people rushed on the Tatars and killed them all. Shevkal and his remaining guards were burnt alive in one of the houses where they had attempted to hide. The massacre led, inevitably to Tatar reprisals.
    Ivan Kalita of Moscow, brother of Yury of Moscow who had been murdered by Dmitri the Terrible Eyes, immediately went to the Horde and, before Aleksandr had time to justify himself to the Khan, persuaded the khan to grant Moscow the yarlik or patent of office for the throne of Vladimir. The khan also sent Ivan at the head of an army of 50,000 soldiers to punishment Tver. Alexander fled with his family. Eventually, he fled into Lithuania and then to Sweden.
    Aleksander returned to Pskov a year and a half later under the patronage of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1335, Aleksandr sent his son, Fyodor, to the Horde in order to gain forgiveness. Two years later he went ther himself 1337. Uzbeg Khan, at least for a time, forgave his old enemy and sent him back to Tver. In October 1338 Aleksander and Fyodor were quartered in Sarai by orders of the Khan.
    His daughter, Uliana (ca. 1325 – 1392), married Algirdas of Lithuania. [Wikipedia]

    1337 AD Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver agrees to submit to Khan and returns to Tver. But Ivan considers this very dangerous. [Jelisavcic]

    1339 AD Ivan I pressures Alexandr Mikhailovich to subordinate himself along with his son, Feodor, more to Khan. The bell of the Tver cathedral of Spaso Preobrashenski is taken to Moscow. Ivan I and Khan Ozbeg lead combined forces in attempt to take Smolensk. [Jelisavcic]

    1340 AD Grand Prince Ivan I Daniilovich visits Sarai for 4th or 5th time, Prince Simyeon (his son) also visits along with all Rus princes called to gather there. Ivan I Daniilovich gets Khan Ozbeg to approve the conditions of his will ahead of time. [Jelisavcic]

    Ivan I Danilovich Kalita - After the defection of Tver to Lithuania, khan Muhammad Ozbeg of the Golden Horde relied on Ivan as the Mongols' leading tax collector and made himself and Moscow very wealthy by maintaining his loyalty to the Horde (hence, the nickname Kalita, or moneybag). [Wikipedia]

    1342-57 AD Jannibeg, Khan of Golden Horde, Grand Prince Simyeon and Metropolitan Feognost both visit Sarai to swear allegiance. [Jelisavcic]

    1343 AD Battle of the Little Borka River. A two-year long rebellion in Estonia precipitates a war between Pskov and the Livonian Order. Near Neigauzen the Pskovites are victorious, but no formal treaty results. [Jelisavcic]

    1347 AD Following Semyon Ivanovich's extended stay in Novgorod he weds Princess Marfa (maria) Aleksandrovna of Tver, his third marriage. Meanwhile King Magnus of Sweden is attempting to convert the Novgorodians to Catholicism either by words or the sword. [Jelisavcic]

    1348 AD King Magnus of Sweden invades Russia. Prussians defeat the Lithuanians at Strawe. [Jelisavcic]

    1353 AD Simeon and his sons die from plague that reaches Moscow from Novgorod -- Metropolitan Feognost dies. Plague repeats in 1364-5, and every decade until 1425. Russia looses 1/3 of population. [Jelisavcic]

    1354 AD All Rus princes assemble at Sarai, Khanum Taydula gives Aleksei (to be appointed Metropolitan) yarlik for visit to Constantinople. [Jelisavcic]

    1356 AD Olgered (Algirdas) grand duke of Lithuania, attacks Smolensk and Briansk and also captures Rzhev and Belaia. Prince Oleg Ivanovich of Ryazan takes Lopasnia area along the Oka from Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1356 AD Russian chronicle mentions arrival of Tatar ambassador accompanied by merchant "Surozhane". Surozhe - Sudak becomes name for merchants trading to south having special privileges. [Jelisavcic]

    1357 AD Metropolitan Aleksei cures Khanum Taydula at Sarai, Jannibeg dies. Aleksei receives Tatar owned area within Kremlin for the Chudov Monastery. [Jelisavcic]

    1357-59 AD Berdibek, Khan of Golden Horde, he issues yarlik to Aleksei. [Jelisavcic]

    1359-63 AD On death of Ivan II, Dmitrii Konstantinovich, of Suzdal Nishegorod given yarlik as Grand Prince of Vladimir. [Jelisavcic]

    1360's-70's Olgerd is concentrating on expanding Lithuanian control deep into Ukraine, he takes Chernigiv region. [Jelisavcic]

    1362-63 AD Battle of the River Sinivody at the Southern Bug (left bank tributary of the Bug). This battle has been mistakenly called the Blue water failing to indicate the precise location. Grand Prince Olgerd of Lithuania is victorious over Kadlubak, (Kachibei, Demetrius) - Tatar chieftans from Crimea (Mangup?) Meanwhile the Teutonic Order with German and French knights besieges Kovno. Olgerd and Keistut bring Russian-Lithuanian army but decide against battle and the fortress falls. [Jelisavcic]

    1362-64 AD Murad, Khan of Golden Horde - civil war and multiple khans following him. He gives yarlik to Dmitrii Konstantinovich of Nizhnigorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1363-89 AD Dmitrii Ivanovich (Donskoi) given yarlik as Grand Prince of Vladimir by Khan Murad, but Khan changes his mind because Mamai favors Dmitrii and returns yarlik to Dmitrii Konstantinovich. But faced with lack of internal support Dmitrii Konstantinovich gives up and agrees in 1366 to marriage of his daughter with Dmitrii Ivanovich. [Jelisavcic]

    1365 AD Riazan defeats Tatar troops. [Jelisavcic]

    1367 AD Moscow helps Vasilii Mikhailovich of Kashin (currently grank prince of Tver) in attack on Mikhail Aleksandrovich of Mikulin (both parts of Tver). Mikhail goes to get aid from Lithuania. Olgerd is already married to Mikhail's sister. Metropolitan Alexis supports Moscow by supporting the junior princes in Tver. [Jelisavcic]

    1368 AD On death of prince Vasilii Mikhailovich of Kashin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich occupies the throne of Tver. Seeking to weaken his power and influence, Dmitrii Ivanovich of Moscow seeks support of the head of the church, Metropolitan Aleksei. Dmitrii succeeds in capturing and imprisoning Mikhail until the Khan orders his release. At the end of the summer Dmitrii begins campaign against Tver. Mikhail calls for help from Lithuania. In October Olgerd (Algirdas) Grand Duke of Lithuania counterattacks and then besieges Moscow, with detachment also from Tver, but they are unsuccessful. They burn the surrounding area and withdraw. On 21 November at the Battle of Lake Trostenskoye, 10 km south of Rumyantsevo the Muscovite polki are practically destroyed. To fight Moscow Mikhail also seeks aid of Kypchak Horde. Mikhail obtains yarlik but Dmitri does not accept that. [Jelisavcic]

    1370 AD Dmitrii Konstantinovich sends his brother, Boris, and son, Vasilii, against Volga Bulgar with approval of Tatar Khan and Mamai. [Jelisavcic]

    1370 AD Dmitri Ivanovich again invades Tver and Mikhail again gets help from Lithuania and from Horde. Ol'gerd besieges Moscow second time, unsuccessfully. Mikhail obtains a yarlik from Mamai's puppet khan. [Jelisavcic]

    1371 AD Mikhail again goes and obtains yarlik from Mamai, while Dmitrii obtains yarlik from Khan at Sarai. Vladimir Andreyevich (Khrabrii) udel prince of Serpukhov, Dmitri's cousin, marries Ol'gerd's daughter. [Jelisavcic]

    1372-5 AD Renewal of all out war between Tver and Moscow, Tver also attacks Torzhok, one of Novgorod's main towns. Ol'gerd's brother, Keistut, and his sons, Vitovt and Andrei, with vassal prince Dmitrii Drutskii lead Lithuanian troops in bloody raid against Torzhok. Kashin and Pereyaslavl-Zaleskii. In June Ol'gerd joins the Tverians near Kaluga and on 12 July they approach Moscow. Dmitrii's avant-gard troops conclude peace with Lithuanians at Rzhyov. The Lithuanian forces include those of Prince Boris Konstantinovich of Gorodets, Andrei Ivanovich of Tver, and Yuri Vladimirovich of Pinsk. [Jelisavcic]

    1374 AD Mamai's ambassadors and troops are killed at Nizhegorod by order of Archbishop Dionisii, who is attempting to instigate hostilities between Mamai and Dmitri. [Jelisavcic]

    The Muscovite princes growing control over the Volga River gave them a greater role in the transport of goods down that river to Bulgar and Sarai, and thus in the Mongols' extensive trade network. [Freeze, p 19]

    Simeon Ivanovich "the Proud", oldest son of Ivan Kalita, became the Grand Prince of Moscow in 1340 and a year later he was granted the Golden Horde's permission to rule Vladimir. He continued his father's policies of supporting the Golden Horde and acting as its leading enforcer in Russia. Semyon was given more and more powers by the Khan to counter Lithuania's growing power that threatened the Mongols' dominance. Unlike most other Russian princes, Semyon remained completely loyal to the Horde. [Wikipedia]

    Ivan II Ivanovich the Fair, the second son of Ivan Kalita who succeeded his brother as Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1353. Ivan briefly toyed with the idea of abandoning traditional Moscow allegiance to the Mongols and allying himself with Lithuania. This policy was quickly abandoned and Ivan asserted his allegiance to the Golden Horde. Contemporaries described Ivan as an apathetic ruler, who didn't flinch even when Algirdas of Lithuania captured his father-in-law's capital, Bryansk. [Wikipedia]

    Dmitri Konstantinovich inherited Suzdal in 1359 and Nizhny Novgorod in 1365. His policy towards Tatars was conciliatory for the most part, as his eastern lands were continuously exposed to their attacks. After some rivalry with Dmitri of Moscow, he was installed by the Khan of the Golden Horde as the Grand Duke of Vladimir in 1360. [Wikipedia]

    Three years later he was dethroned and had to make peace with Dmitri by marrying him to his daughter, Eudoxia. Joining his army with Dmitri's, he led an allied assault on Volga Bulgars and Mordovia. In 1377, the allied armies were defeated by the Tatars on the Pyana River, because (as the chronicler put it) they were too drunk to fight. However, in 1382 Dmitry Konstantinovich took the side of Khan Tokhtamysh in taking over Moscow and sent his sons to serve in the Tatar army. [Wikipedia]

    Mikhail Alexandrovich was the last Grand Prince of Tver who could dispute the title Grand Prince of Vladimir with the Grand Prince of Moscow. He hoped to defeat the Grand Prince of Moscow with the aid of Lithuania. In 1370, 1371 and 1375, he receive the yarlik that gives a Prince the title "Grand Prince of Vladimir" from the Khan of Golden Horde 3 times; but he couldn't establish any real authority in that city. [Wikipedia]

    1375 AD Nekomat (Surozh merchant) and Ivan Vel'yaminov dealing with Tver against Moscow. Dmitrii launches campaign against Tver with aid from Suzdal, Nishegorod, Rostov, and Yaroslavl. Unable to take the fortress by a coup de main, Dmitrii besieges Tver for a month. Dmitrii gains control over Ryazan and Starodub. Ol'gered does not come to help Tver. [Jelisavcic]

    1375 AD Tatars sack Nizhegorod - Dmitrii of Moscow and Mikhail of Tver sign truce unfavorable to Mikhail. Mikhail declares himself 'younger brother' of Dmitrii, and Tver agrees to help Moscow against Tatars. [Jelisavcic]

    1376 AD Dmitrii Ivanovich besieges and gets tribute from Kazan - Toqtaqya and then Temur Kelik are Khans of the Kypchak Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1377 AD 14 Jan -20 March - Rus campaign against Tatar vassal, Volga Bolgar, against Tatar wishes. [Jelisavcic]

    1377 AD Mamai unites under himself all power over the western part of the Kypchak Horde from Volga ulus except Astrakhan ulus of Khadzi Cherkesa, but he is not legal ruler, who is Khan Tulyak. Mamai's troops attack Nizhnigorod and again in 1378. [Jelisavcic]

    1378 AD Toqtamish captures Sarai - leaving Mamai with control only over Kypchak in western regions. Dmitrii defeats Mamai's troops led by Beglich, on Vozha River, Tatars burn Nizhegorod, Metropolitan Aleksei dies. [Jelisavcic]

    1379 AD Mamai preparing for offensive coming from east by Toqtamish. He obtains promise of support from Oleg of Ryazan and Jagiello of Lithuania.- Pimen becomes Metropolitan of Rus in Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1379 AD Mitya journey to Kaffa via Solkhat. He meets Mamai in steppe of north Crimea on way to Constantinople - receives yarlik from Khan Tulyak for metropolitan of Moscow, arrives Constantinople at time of Genoese blockade and dies on shipboard. [Jelisavcic]

    1379 AD 30 Aug. 1.5 months after Mitya left Moscow, Ivan Vel'yaminov executed for treason. [Jelisavcic]

    1380 AD September 8, Battle of Kulikovo Pole, Dmitri Ivanovich (Donskoi) defeats Mamai. Dmitri has 10 "Surozhane" - merchant traders with Crimea - as guides for campaign across the steppe. [Jelisavcic]

    1382 AD Toqtamish campaign against Moscow, approaches unsuspecting city on 12 August, uses ruse to gain entrance to city, then sacks it. Boris of Nizhnigorod is Toqtamish ally. Michael of Tver supports Tatars in hopes of getting yarlik, but is disappointed. [Jelisavcic]

    1386 AD Novgorod tries to use Tatar victory over Moscow to gain more independence. Dmitrii Ivanovich brings army and extracts promise of Tatar tribute from Novgorod the Great. Jagiello marries Jadwiga bringing Lithuania and Poland into dynastic union. He is baptised and made King of Poland. [Jelisavcic]

    Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy was the first prince of Moscow to openly challenge Tatar authority in Russia. [Wikipedia]

    In 1360 the highest dignity among Russian princes, that of Grand Duke of Vladimir, was transferred by a Khan of the Golden Horde upon Dmitri Konstantinovich of Nizhny Novgorod. In 1363, when that prince had been deposed, Dmitri Ivanovich was finally crowned at Vladimir. Three years later, he made peace with Dmitri Konstantinovich and married his daughter Eudoxia. In 1376, their joined armies ravaged Volga Bulgaria. [Wikipedia]
    The new stone fortress of the Moscow Kremlin allowed the city to withstand two sieges by Algirdas of Lithuania, in 1368 and 1370. In 1375, Dmitri managed to settle his conflict with Tver in his favour. Other princes of Northern Russia also acknowledged his authority and contributed their troops to his impending struggle against the Horde. Dmitri's thirty-year reign saw the beginning of the end for Mongol domination of parts of what is now Russia. The Golden Horde was severely weakened by civil war and dynastic rivalries. Dmitri took advantage of this lapse in Mongol authority to openly challenge the Tatars. [Wikipedia]
    While he kept the Khan's patent to collect taxes for all of Russia, Dmitri is also famous for leading the first Russian military victory over the Mongols. Mamai, a Mongol general and claimant to the throne, tried to punish Dmitri for attempting to increase his power. In 1378 Mamai sent a Mongol army, but it was defeated. Two years later Mamai personally lead a large force against Moscow. Dmitri defeated it at the Battle of Kulikovo. [Wikipedia]
    The defeated Mamai was then dethroned by a rival general, Tokhtamysh. That khan reasserted Mongol rule over parts of what now is Russia and overran Moscow for Dmitri's resistance to Mamai. Dmitri, however, pledged his loyalty to Tokhtamysh and to the Golden Horde and was reinstated as Mongol principal tax collector and Grand Duke of Vladimir. Upon his death in 1389, Dmitri was the first Grand Duke to bequeath his titles to his son Vasili without consulting the Khan. [Wikipedia]

    1389 AD Pimen reaches Azov via Don in 40 days travel. [Jelisavcic]

    1391 AD Timur renews war against Toqtamish. He drives Kypchak army north along Volga and defeats Toqtamish on Kondurcha River (or Sakmara) on 18 June. Vasilii Dimitriyevich is called to support Toqtamish but manages to keep his army north of the Ik River. Skirting Suzdal and Ryazan territories he crosses the steppe beyond the Don. But once there he is compelled to marry Sofia, daughter of Vitvot of Lithuania. He brings his bride back to Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1392 AD Vitvot, son of Keistut, turns away from the Teutonic Order and by Treaty of Ostrow receives the Duchy of Trokai and part of Volhynia with its castle at Lusk. [Jelisavcic]

    1392 AD Vasilii I IDmitriyevich takes advantage of Tatar weakness to sieze Nizhni-Novgorod.[Jelisavcic]

    1395 AD Vitvot captures Smolensk while Vasilii remains neutral. [Jelisavcic]

    1395 AD Tamerlane campaigns against Toqtamish, wins decisive battle on 14 April on Terek River, sacks Sarai, destroys Tana on 14 September, destroys much of Crimea, his army rampages to Dniper, but he refrains from marching on Moscow due to danger from Kypchaks on his flanks. His supporter in Crimea is Tash Timur, Toqtamish flees to Lithuania. [Jelisavcic]

    1397 AD Vitvot and Vasilii I conduct joint campaign against Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1397-98 AD Vitvot begins campaigns deep into steppe as far as Black Sea allied with Toqtamish's Tatars. They have army now equipped with pischali (hand guns) and cannon and depart Kyiv for Crimea. On 8 September 1397 they are victorious over small forces of Timur Qutlugh and Yedigei near Kaffa. During the 1397 campaign Vitvot takes Kariate families from Chufu-Kale to settle at Trakai. Then in 1398 Timur Qutlugh defeats Toqtamish and forces his return to Lithuania. Toqtamish agrees to treaty with Vitvot giving the latter the ulus of Moscow in exchange for further help in war against Timur Qutlugh [Jelisavcic]

    1399 AD Khan Timur Qutlugh defeats Toqtamish and Grand Duke Vitvot (Vytautus) at Vorskla River on 12 August. Many Lithuanian princes are killed. This is decisive blow to Lithuanian efforts on Black Sea coast. Prince Yurii Svyatoslavich regains his city at Smolensk, but loses it again in 1403-4. [Jelisavcic]

15th Century:
    1401-07 AD Yedigei installs Sadi Beg (Shadibek) as Khan of Kypchak Khanate (Ulus Juchi). Sadi, Beg restores closer ties with Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1406-7 AD The bloodless Russian-Lithuanian War pits Vasilii II against his father-in-law, Vitvot. The first standoff is at Krapivna on the Plava River near Tul'ya. The second is at Vyaz'ma in Smolensk region. The third is at the Urga River, probably near Kaluga. [Jelisavcic]

    1407 AD Battle of the Field of Logozovitskoye. Following three years of light skirmishing and raids by both sides, the conflict between Novgorod and Livonians turns serious. The main leaders of Novgorod and Pskov take their polki as well as three Novgorod posadniki to this battle where they are all killed. Magistrate Conrad von Vietinghof leads the Livonians. The attempt to compel Pskov to surrender in 1408 and 1409 results in a peace treaty signed at Kirumpyaya in 1410. [Jelisavcic]

    1408 AD Emir Edigei attacks Moscow and nearby towns. He demands troops and artillery for support from Prince Ivan of Tver. Ivan pretends to agree but keeps his forces at home, greatly improving his position within Russia. Edigei besieges Moscow but fails to take city before he is recalled to send troops elsewhere. But he extracts ransom. Meanwhile Vasilii is conveniently in north 'raising troops.' [Jelisavcic]

    1410 AD Battle of Tannenberg,( or Grundvald or Salgir) On 15 July Vitvot with Polish, Lithuanian and Russian troops defeats Teutonic Knights of Ulrich von Jungingen. Tens of thousands of Teutonic knights are killed. But Livonian Order stays out of the battle. [Jelisavcic]

    1411 AD Genoese records at Kaffa mention Prince Alexis of Theodoro (Mangup). [Jelisavcic]

    Vasiliy I Dmitriyevich, to prevent Russia from being attacked by the Golden Horde, entered into alliance with Lithuania in 1392 and married Sophia of Lithuania, the only daughter of Vytautas the Great. The alliance turned out to be fragile, since Vytautas would later capture Vyazma and Smolensk in 1403–1404. [Wikipedia]

    In Vasiliy's reign occurred the invasion of Timur (1395), who ruined the Volgan regions but did not penetrate so far as Moscow. Indeed Timur's raid was of service to the Russian prince as it damaged the Golden Horde, which for the next twelve years was in a state of anarchy. During the whole of this time no tribute was paid to the khan, Olug Moxammat, though vast sums of money were collected in the Moscow treasury for military purposes. In 1408 Edigu ravaged Muscovite territory, but was unable to take Moscow. In 1412, however, Vasiliy found it necessary to pay the long-deferred visit of submission to the Horde. [Wikipedia]
    The growing influence of Muscovy abroad was underlined by the fact that Vasiliy married his daughter Anna to Emperor Ioannes VIII of Byzantium. [Wikipedia]

    1413 - Visit of Guillibert de Lannoy to Russia. [Michell]

    1423 AD Prince Alexis captures Chembalo - Genoese under Pietro Magnero retake it. [Jelisavcic]

    1423 AD Genoese raid Kalimita and burn town, Alexis rebuilds. [Jelisavcic]

    1427 AD Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver signs alliance with Grand Duke of Lithuania, Vitvot. [Jelisavcic]

    1428 AD Boris participates in Vitvot's campaign against Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1430 AD Vitvot dies. Boris supports Svidrigailo for Lithuanian throne with troops but they are defeated in several battles. [Jelisavcic]

    In the 1430s, Prince Vasilii II had "welcomed into his service two of the khan's sons" [Freeze, p 26]

    1431 AD With both Vitvot and Metropolitan Photius dead, Yuri, brother of Vasilii I, again claims throne of Moscow - he and Vasilii II go to Sarai for decision by Khan Ulug Mehmed. [Jelisavcic]

    1432 AD Ulug Mehmed gives yarlik to Vasilii II. [Jelisavcic]

    1438 AD Ulug Mehmed defeats Moscow at Belev.[Jelisavcic]

    1439 AD Ulug Mehmed besieges Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1443 AD Kypchak Horde Tatars led by Prince Mustafa attack Riazan, defeated by Vasilii II's troops. [Jelisavcic]

    1444 AD Khan Uleg Mehmed moves from Belev down Oka to Gorodets.[Jelisavcic]

    1444-8 AD Novgorod at war with Livonian Order. [Jelisavcic]

    1445 AD Uleg Mehmed attacks Murom, he sends sons, Mahmudek and Yakub to attack Suzdal, they capture Vasilii II. Mahmudek captures Kazan from Kypchak Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1446 AD While Vasilii is held by Tatars, Dmitrii Yurivich Shemiaka takes Moscow throne. Uleg Mehmed lets Vasilii return to Moscow for huge ransom. Then Ivan, prince of Mozhaisk helps Dmitrii by capturing Vasilii and Dmitri then blinds Vasilii. Nevertheless, by end of the year Vasilii has gained support and Dmitri is driven out of Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1447 AD Vasilii retakes Moscow from Dmitri Shemiaka - Mahmudek, now Khan of Kazan, attacks Moscow but is driven away. Boris cements alliance with Vasilii by agreeing that his daughter, Maria, marry Ivan. Boris sends cannon from Tver to help Vasilii take Ustug and defeat Shemiaka. And Vasilii to show friendship gives Rzhev to Tver. But Rzhev objects so Boris has to besiege the town using his cannon. [Jelisavcic]

    1448 AD Fearing Tver- Moscow alliance, the Lithuanians come and take Rzhev and hold it until Tver signs a new treaty. [Jelisavcic]

    1448 AD Battle on the Narova River. Prince Vasilii Vasil'yevich of Suzdal defeats the Livonian German army. By sea at the isthmus of the River Narova the Novgorodian boats assault the Livonian ships andcapture two barons and 84 knights. [Jelisavcic]

    1449 AD Casimir IV makes treaties with Vasilii II of Moscow and Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver - Vasilii makes his son, Ivan, co-ruler. [Jelisavcic]

    1449 AD Said Ahmad sends part of Horde against Moscow, defeated by Kasim, Tsarivich of Kasimov Tatars. [Jelisavcic]

    1450 AD Dmitrii Shemiaka attacks Moscow again, when defeated flees to Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    Yury Dmitrievich of Zvenigorod was the second son of Dmitri Donskoi. His marriage to Anastasia, the daughter of Yury of Smolensk, made him the brother-in-law of Švitrigaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania. [Wikipedia]

    Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind), the eldest son of Vasili I Dmitriyevich by Sophia of Lithuania, daughter of Vytautas. On his father's death he was proclaimed Grand Duke at the tender age of 10. His mother acted as a regent. His uncle, Yuri of Zvenigorod (Prince of Galich-Mersky), and his two sons, Vasily the Cross-Eyed and Dmitry Shemyaka, seized on the opportunity to advance their own claims to the throne. Upon Vytautas' death in 1430, Yuri went to the Golden Horde, returning with the yarlik. But the Khan did not support him any further, largely due to the guileful policies of the Smolensk princeling and Muscovite boyarin Ivan Vsevolzhsky. Yuri's claim was inherited by his sons who decided to continue the fight. They managed to defeat Vasili, who had to seek refuge in the Golden Horde. After the death of Yuri in 1434, Vasili the Cross-Eyed entered the Kremlin and was proclaimed new Grand Duke. Dmitry Shemyaka, who had his own plans for the throne, quarreled with his brother and concluded an alliance with Vasili II. Together they managed to banish Vasily the Cross-Eyed from the Kremlin in 1435. [Wikipedia]

    Vasili's reign saw the collapse of the Golden Horde and its break up into smaller Khanates. Now that his throne was relatively secure, he had to deal with the Tatar threat. In 1439, Vasili had to flee the capital, when it was besieged by Olug Moxammat, ruler of the nascent Kazan Khanate. Six years later, he personally led his troops against Olug Moxammat, but was defeated and taken prisoner. The Muscovites were forced to gather an enormous ransom for their prince, so that Vasili could be released some five months later. [Wikipedia>
    Vasili's final victory against his cousin came in 1450s, when he captured Galich-Mersky and poisoned Dmitry. The latter's children managed to escape to Lithuania. [Wikipedia]
    In the meantime, Constantinople fell to the Turks, and the Patriarch agreed to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope in the Council of Florence. Vasili promptly rejected this concession. By his order in 1448, bishop Jonah was appointed metropolitan of Russia, which was tantamount to declaration of independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Patriarch of Constantinople. This move further strengthened Russia's reputation among Orthodox states. [Wikipedia]

    1451 AD Another Horde Tatar army of Said Ahmad reaches Moscow but is repulsed at the walls.[Jelisavcic]

    "The emergence of the Moscow-dominated Tatar khanate of Kasimov in 1452 heightened Moscow's prestige in the Muslim world and encouraged many Tatars to enter its service." [Mackenzie and Curran, p 137]

    Vasilii II set up "a quasi-independent Tatar principality at Kasimov, designed as a refuge for a dissident line of the Kazan ruling dynasty and their Tatar retinues..." [Freeze, p 35]

    1465 AD Khan Ahmed starts campaign against Moscow, attacked en route on Don by Haji Girei and Crimean Tatars, allies of Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1466-72 AD Tver merchant Afanasiyi Nikitin travels overland to India. [Jelisavcic]

    1467-79 AD Ibrahim, son of Mahmudek, Khan of Kazan. [Jelisavcic]

    1468-69 AD Ivan III begins another major campaign against Kazan, fails twice.[Jelisavcic]

    1470 AD Novgorod seeks help from King Casimir IV of Poland. [Jelisavcic]

    1471 AD Livonian Lithuanian alliance is blocked when Livonian Master Wolthus von Herse is deposed. [Jelisavcic]

    1471 AD Ivan III campaigns against Novgorod with Muscovite and Tatar troops and detachment from Tver, wins victory at Shelon River, forces treaty on Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1472-73 AD Kaffa resident, Khozya Kokos, sends letter to Ivan III in Moscow proposing marriage of Ivan's 16-year -old son to daughter of Isaac, Prince of Theodoro on Mangup. [Jelisavcic]

    1472 AD Casimir signs treaty of alliance with Great (Kypchak) Horde against their mutual enemies, Muscovy and Crimean Tatars. [Jelisavcic]

    1472 AD Sophia Palaeologina travels from Italy to Moscow to marry Ivan III, accompanied by Prince Constantine of Mangup. [Jelisavcic]

    1472 AD Ahmed launches another major campaign against Moscow, blocked with aid of Kasimov Tatars when Lithuanian allies failed to show. [Jelisavcic]

    1474 AD Ivan III sends boyar, Nikita Beklemishev, to Khan Mengli Girei and Isaac (to check about marriage) and sign alliance with Mengli against Ahmed. Ivan also pays damages for raids of cossacks against Kaffa merchants. [Jelisavcic]

    1475 AD Ivan III negociating treaty of alliance with Mengli Girei when Ottomans invade and capture Mengli. [Jelisavcic]

    1475 AD Early spring - Ivan III sends boyar, Aleksei Starkov, to Theodoro to cement proposed marriage, Starkov also is to obtain redress for damages done to Muscovite merchants. [Jelisavcic]

    1475 AD Stephen of Moldovia sends Alexander, brother of his wife and of Isaac, by ship from Montecastro to Kalimita with 300 mercenary troops supplied by king of Hungary. Alexander deposes and kills Isaac, assumes rule of Theodoro. [Jelisavcic]

    1475 AD 6 June - after 5-day siege, Kaffa surrenders, 500 Genoese families sent to Constantinople, many leaders manage to flee to Mangup. Many foreign merchants including Russians taken into slavery. [Jelisavcic]

    1475 AD December - Ottomans capture Mangup after 3-month siege, during which 5 assaults fail, by using heavy artillery. Prince Alexander has 300 Wallach mercenaries and possibly 15,000 local men. Mengli Girei taken to Constantinople then returned to be Khan. Prince Alexander (of?) taken and beheaded after his wife and daughters are given to Sultan's harem. [Jelisavcic]

    1478 AD Khan Ibrahim of Kazan tries to capture Viatka while Ivan III busy at Novgorod, but fails. Ivan takes great bell from Novgorod to Moscow. He also takes Torzhok. [Jelisavcic]

    1480 AD Livonian Order fails to capture Pskov. [Jelisavcic]

    1480 AD Incident on the Ugra, Ivan III and Khan Ahmed face each other across river but both refuse battle. Tver sends troops to support Ivan. [Jelisavcic]

    1483 AD Being now nearly surrounded by Moscow, Mikhail Borisovich signs treaty with Casimir IV and agrees to marriage. But, having helped Ivan take Novgorod it is now too late for Mikhail. [Jelisavcic]

    1484 AD Ivan III conducts another campaign against Kazan. [Jelisavcic]

    1484 AD Ivan sends his Tatar troops to aid Mengli Girei against Great Horde after the Horde under Murtaza (Ahmed's son) invades Crimea. Mengli sends Murtaza as prisoner to Istanbul, then Mengli defeated and goes temporarily to Istanbul. [Jelisavcic]

    1484 AD Under increasing pressure Great Horde migrates west to Donets River, continues much fighting with Crimean Tatars and Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1485 AD Ivan III attacks Tver in winter 1484-5. Casimir does not send help. Mikhail is forced to swear allegance to Moscow. This causes his boyars and serving princes to go to Moscow. Then Ivan comes again in September. Mikhail flees to Lithuania and the citizens open the gates to Ivan. [Jelisavcic]

    1486 AD Ivan sends army under Nur Devlet against Great Horde. [Jelisavcic]

    1487 AD Under pressure from Ottoman sultan Great Horde attacks Lithuania instead of Crimea or Moscow. Horde spends 2.5 years campaigning in Poland and Lithuania thus weakening Poles versus Ottomans but also weakening itself versus Crimea and Moscow. [Jelisavcic]

    1487 AD With Mehemmed Amin's mother now married to Mengli Girei, his ally, Ivan now settles on Mehemmed as his candidate for Kazan throne, sends 4 armies who depose Ali and instal Mehemmed again. Ivan agrees for Mehemmed to marry daughter of Nogai chieftan, Musa. [Jelisavcic]

    1490 AD Great Horde still fighting in Poland after being ejected from Podolia, Ivan sends Kasimov Tatars against them with no contact. Sultan Bayazid trying to get all Tatars into mutual alliance. [Jelisavcic]

    1491 AD Poles defeat Great Horde at Zaslavl as Mengli and Ivan applaud from the sidelines. But then Great Horde masses north of Crimea for invasion with aid from Nogai Horde. Ivan sends army south and also sends Kazan Tatars south to aid Crimeans. This forces Great Horde to disperse. [Jelisavcic]

    1492 AD Combined attack on Astrakhan by Siberian Tatar Ivak, his brother, Mamuk, Khan of the Uzbeks, and his brother in law, Musa andYamgurchu of the Nogais, but they fail to take fortress. They continue to pressure Kazan. [Jelisavcic]

    1492 AD With Great Horde impotent, Mengli Girei builds Crimean fortress at Tyaginka, on Dnieper as base for raids into Podolia, Ivan concerned as he has designs on lower Dnieper for himself. [Jelisavcic]

    It was in the reign of Ivan III that Muscovy rejected the Tatar yoke. In 1480 Ivan refused to pay the customary tribute to the grand Khan Ahmed. All through the autumn the Russian and Tatar hosts confronted each other on opposite sides of the Ugra, till the 11th of November, when Ahmed retired into the steppe. In the following year the grand khan, while preparing a second expedition against Moscow, was suddenly attacked, routed and slain by Ivan, the khan of the Nogay Horde, whereupon the Golden Horde suddenly fell to pieces. In 1487 Ivan reduced the khanate of Kazan (one of the offshoots of the Horde) to the condition of a vassal-state, though in his later years it broke away from his suzerainty. With the other Muslim powers, the khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sultans of Ottoman Empire, Ivan's relations were pacific and even amicable. The Crimean khan, Meñli I Giray, helped him against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and facilitated the opening of diplomatic intercourse between Moscow and Istanbul, where the first Russian embassy appeared in 1495. [Wikipedia]

    In Nordic affairs, Ivan III concluded an offensive alliance with Hans of Denmark and maintained a regular correspondence with Emperor Maximilian I, who called him a "brother". He built a strong citadel in Ingria (named Ivangorod after himself), which proved of great consequence to Russians in the war with Sweden, which had been preceded by Ivan's detention of the Hanseatic merchants trading in Novgorod.[Wikipedia]
    The further extension of the Muscovite dominion was facilitated by the death of Casimir IV in 1492, when Poland and Lithuania once more parted company. The throne of Lithuania was now occupied by Casimir's son Alexander, a weak and lethargic prince so incapable of defending his possessions against the persistent attacks of the Muscovites that he attempted to save them by a matrimonial compact, and wedded Helena, Ivan's daughter. But the clear determination of Ivan to appropriate as much of Lithuania as possible at last compelled Alexander in 1499 to take up arms against his father-in-law. The Lithuanians were routed at Vedrosha (July 14, 1500), and in 1503 Alexander was glad to purchase peace by ceding to Ivan Chernigov, Starodub, Novgorod-Seversky and sixteen other towns.[Wikipedia]
    He married Sophia Paleologue, a niece of Constantine XI, the last Eastern Roman Emperor. Together with her brothers, she had been taken to Rome after conquest of Morea by Mehmed II. In Rome, her Greek name Zoe was changed to Sophia. In 1469, Pope Paul II offered to marry her to the Russian monarch in order to unite the Orthodox and Catholic churches. They were married at the Dormition Cathedral on November 12, 1472. The cardinal Johannes Bessarion, sent by the Pope to Moscow, however, did not succeed in his mission to convert Russia to Catholicism. Over the years, Sophia started to wield great influence on her aged husband. It is thought that she was the first to introduce the Kremlin to grand Byzantine ceremonies and meticulous etiquette. The idea of Moscow as the Third Rome evidently pleased her. [Wikipedia]

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