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Richard Hellie (The University of Chicago)

Russian clothing and its international context: 1600-1725

CLOTHING by definition marks any people. My study of the economy and material culture in this period has accumulated over 106, 000 records of the prices of material objects, wages, taxes, and other things. The variety of clothing is almost limitless, unlike, for example, grains or domestic animals, and thus a certain amount of arbitrary aggregation is required. I devoted considerable time to ferreting out the etymologies of the words for late Muscovite clothing and discovered that the Turko-Tatar and other foreign influences on the late Muscovite wardrobe were extraordinary

This presentation will be organized by English alphabetical order of the names of the commodities.

A kid leather apron is mentioned in the Zabelin collection. The Russian word for apron is fartuk, which came from Middle High German through Polish into Russian. This 1690 entry is earlier than any cited in the etymological dictionaries, whose first reference is 1698 [1].

A bandolier/bandoleer is a "belt fitted with small pockets or loops for carrying cartridges and worn across the chest by soldiers" [2]. The Russian word, patrontash, comes from Old German and, according to Vasmer, has been in Russian since 1616; according to Chernykh, it has been in dictionaries since 1806 [3].

The belt was a major Russian commodity. In Middle Russian there were a number of words which translate into the English "belt": opoiaska, podviazka, poias, remen, and tataur seem to be the major ones.

Opoiaska and poias were fundamentally the same, so will be discussed together. Poias is from an ancient Slavic word (of probably Indo-European origin) which is common to most Slavic languages [4]. From this we may conclude that Slavs have been using belts from time immemorial. What is interesting about this form of belt is that all of those under 5 rubles seem to have been made of the textiles wool, cotton, sackcloth, velvet, and silk. All of these, with the exception of sackcloth, were basically luxury textiles, a fact which is reflected in their price.

The word remen' meant, in addition to "belt, " also "band, strap, thong. " Usually, however, in this data set it was a belt, and thus will be discussed here. If the poias was typically made of cloth, then the remen' was typically made of leather. Remen' Was also an ancient Slavic word for which one can find cognates in other Slavic languages. The word's origins cannot be traced as far back as can the origins of poias [5]. It is interesting that the Slavs had different words for cloth and leather belts, for such distinctions do not (to my knowledge) exist in English.

The third major kind of belt, the tataur, was a wide leather belt which typically cost more than did the remen'. Tataur is not of Slavic origin, but was borrowed from Mongol. The word first appeared in the 1389 will of Dmitrii Donskoi [6].

The blouse has been part of the Russian wardrobe for centuries. Cognates of the Russian sorochka are found in some other Slavic languages (primarily South Slavic), but not all, and also in Latvian and Lithuanian. The similarity to the words sorok (40, after the practice of bundling sables and other furs in such packages, absent in other Slavic languages) and soroka (Magpie, probably of Indo-European origin) is obvious, but the linguistic connection, if any, is not. The consequence is that the final word on this issue remains to be said [7].

Boots were one of the varieties of footwear in Muscovy. There were a number of Russian words for boots: chobot, kan'gi, sapogi, and upaki. Chobot/chebot is a word of Turkish origin (from Persian), but such have not appeared in the data set. Kangi always appeared with the adjective for deerskin and was of Finnic origin. Then there were upaki, another Finnish word [8].

Sapogi were the major type of boots (N — 241, for the years 1600-1722). The singular form, sapog, is found in Old Church Slavonic and seems to have closer affinity to Finnish than other possible origins [9]. 

Sermiaga was another form of caftan. It took its name from the cloth it was made of: coarse, undyed, homespun, presumably of wool or perhaps flax. Later, sermiazhnik became a nickname for muzhik, peasant, after the name of the coats these people wore.

The terlik was a narrow caftan with short sleeves and a tailored waist. Like many of these objects of material culture, the name of this one was also borrowed from Mongol or Turkish. The word appeared in Russian at the end of the fifteenth century and was common in the sixteenth [18].

The zhupan was a short, warm caftan. The word came from Italian, but exists in West Slavic languages as well [19].

The last type of caftan to be discussed is the zipun, a word still in use. It was also at the low end, typically (but certainly not always) made of peasant homespun. This word also came from Turkish, according to Shipova, where it meant a short-sleeved silk garment; according to Vasmer, it came from Modern Greek or Venician Italian. It first appeared in written Russian in the mid-sixteenth century [20]. After the kaftan, the zipun was the second most common form of caftan.

The most usual Russian word for cap is kolpak, one of the many words recently (this one - the end of the fifteenth century) borrowed from the Turkic languages [21].

Another type of cap was the treukh, according to Vasmer a word made up by the Russians from tre- (= three) and ukho (=ear/earflap of a hat) [22].

The cape was a wide, long sleeveless garment prevalent throughout this period. The most common name for the object was épancha/ iapancha/ iaponcha, yet another Turkish borrowing from the end of the fifteenth century which makes one wonder whether the commodity existed before there was a name for it [23].

The Muscovites knew an outer garment called the kepa. The term is absent from all the dictionaries used in this work except the Dictionary of Old and Middle Russian, which presents 2 examples from the seventeenth century, one of those is the one discussed here [24]. This is probably a Turkic word, for the garments adjective is "Bukhara. " Whatever it was, I would surmise that it was made of cotton because kepa seems to be related to a Turkish word for cotton. 

The cassock (Russian: nasa, riaska) was a church garment. The Russian word came from Middle Latin, which ultimately derived from Greek [25].

The chasuble was another church garment, a sleeveless hooded piece worn by a priest during the saying of mass. The Russian word, riza, is found in other Slavic languages but is of uncertain etymology [26].

The cloak was another Russian overgarment. In Russian, one was the burka, the other koshulka. The burka is a neologism of the seventeenth century based on the adjective buryi [with the noun plashch or some other understood], "brown [sleeveless cloak]. " Chernykh says that the first appearance of the word was in 1686 on the Don. The first entry in our data set is 1652 (although this well may be a later Russian translators guess of what the Swedish original) [27]. The koshurka / koshulia was some kind of garment which appears in many other Slavic languages with the usual meaning of "shirt. "

Clothing was a rather abstract thing which was expressed in three different Russian words: odezhda, plat'e, and rukhlad'. There are some difficulties in comprehending these words, especially as there are varying meanings for some of them. Thus plat'e, in addition to "clothing" (such as when a serviceman was given funds to buy clothing [a uniform - the phrase used was na plat'e), can also mean the garment a woman sometimes wears, a "dress. " Rukhliad', especially when preceded by miagkaia, often means "furs, " rather than clothing. It can also mean any moveable property, although in other Slavic languages its counterparts all mean "clothing" [28].

Monks' clothing was a special item in the Tobol'sk customs books. Starcheskaia skhima was made of wool. Skhima is a Greek word, usually referring to the rite of becoming a monk According to Segal, such clothing can be translated as "schema" [29].

The coat was another central element of the Russian wardrobe. There were at least 12 Russian words that can be suitably translated as "coat": armiak, fereza, katanka, kholodnik, kozhan, kurtka, okhaben', platno, pnvoloka, shuba, torlop, and tulup.

The armiak comes from Turkish languages, where it typically means a coat made of camel hair. The word probably entered Russian in the fifteenth century [30]. 

The fereza/ferezeia/fenazi/feriaz'/ferez was a long coat, either man's or woman's, with long sleeves but without a collar or belt. This word came into Russian from Middle Greek through Turkish, probably toward the end of the sixteenth century [31].

The katanka was a coat probably usually worn by men. It was rather rare, and its etymology is not available.

The kholodnik was a woman's winter coat. Its name derived from the Russian word for "cold": kholodno, (There was also a letnik, a woman's summer dress, discussed below. )

The kozhan was a leather coat, from the word for leather {kozha). The kurtka/kurta was a short quilted coat which appeared in Russian the first time in the 1658 list of Nikon's expenditures. Its etymology is in dispute. There seems to be good evidence that it might be from Persian via Turkish, but the word is not claimed by Shipova, which would lead one to believe that at least she believed a Latin origin (curtus, suggested by others) was more plausible [32].

The okhaben was another common man's long coat, with big buttons, a big collar falling below the shoulder blades, long sleeves, and seam rents for the hands, in the 1607-1677 years. Its first recorded use was in 1489; another early use implies that it was a summer coat (and the shuba, see below, a winter garment). The etymologies proposed (from fortifications terminology) seem forced, whereas if it were derived from the verb okhabanivat' it could be much like the English garment called a "wrap" [33]. Be that as it may, the word (and therefore, I assume, the basic form of the garment) seems to be definitely of Russian origin.

The platno was a short coat with closures. It comes from the word plat— "cloth, " undoubtedly, and as such is an ancient Russian word. This generally was a very luxurious, expensive garment, first recorded in 1490 but I would assume considerably older [34].

The privoloka was a sleeveless coat whose etymology is certainly Russian and which was recorded as early as 1380 [35].

The shuba was by far the most common coat which will be discussed in this section. As mentioned earlier, it typically was a winter coat, and also typically (but not always) was a long-sleeved fur coat. Although the word shuba is found in many other Slavic languages, the consensus seems to be that it was borrowed from Middle High German (which may have gotten it from Arabic) and appeared in Russian in the fourteenth century [36].

A special woman's coat was the for/op, a word which was frequent in the sixteenth century and which may have been borrowed from Polish, where it was present in the fifteenth century [37].

The last type of coat to be mentioned here was the tulup. The origin of the word is in dispute, although it is plausible that the Russians borrowed it from the Tatars. The tulup was an inexpensive (often Nogai) sheepskin coat which came into the Russian language in the sixteenth century [38].

The coat cover was an important garment among the well-to-do in Muscovy, and perhaps even among those further down the social scale. Sporok is a Russian word, but its etymology in this context is not apparent [39].

Siberians in Tobolsk, at least, knew an object perhaps best translated as lining, either for a coat or a hat (podskor). It was made of fox or sable.

The Siberians in Tobolsk also had special collars in 1639 made of unspecified fur for 25 kopeks and of sable for 40 kopeks [40]. The word for "collar, " vorotnik, has an interesting etymology. Vorot in the eleventh and twelfth centuries meant "neck. " At the end of the sixteenth century it meant a hole in a garment to put the head through. The word vorotnik appeared only later, and first in a dictionary in 1731 [41].

There were a number of words for dress in Russian: letnik, saian, sarafan, shushun, and sukman are in this data set. The letnik / litnik was a woman's summer dress, from thé word leto = summer. The word is extant in Russian from the end of the fifteenth century [42].

The shushun was a sleeveless dress supposedly much like the sarafan. The etymology of this word is unstudied.

The sukman is another potentially mystery object. In most Turkic languages the word signifies a caftan, and that seems to be its fundamental meaning in Russian as well. In Polish it means "overcoat. " But in Bulgarian it means "wool skirt. " In Russian it is sometimes alleged to mean "woolen sarafan, " but as has been shown above, that is extremely ambiguous [43]. This last suggestion puts sukman in the dress category. 

In spite of what one might expect, there is only one set of earmuffs in this data set. Naushnik is a Russian word meaning "on the ear[s]. "

The footwrap - onucha is common to many Slavic languages, but its precise origin in Common Slavic or Indo-European remains in dispute [44]. The point is that this was a garment the Slavs knew for centuries before 1600.

Gloves for ordinary use probably did not exist in this period. See "mittens" below for handwear.

The hat was a frequent garment in Muscovy, and there are 7 different kinds in this data set: kaptur, malakhai, podkapok, shapka, shlpapa, verkh, and vershok. The kaptur/kaptura was a warm hat with extensions to cover neck and shoulders. Some see the origin of the word in Italian, but northern Turkish seems more plausible [45].

The malakhai was a fur hat with earflaps, in this case fox fur. The word is of Mongol-Tatar origin, and does not seem to be attested in Russian use before the mid-seventeenth century [46].

The podkapok was a hat worn by monks under a calotte. The name must be of Russian origin.

Shapka was the major type of hat in Muscovy. It ordinarily was a soft, warm, male garment. The word appeared in Russian in 1327, perhaps from Polish, which may have gotten it from French [47].

The shlapa (and the shlapenko) were yet another form of headwear, with a round crown and brim. The word is absent in other Slavic languages and is known in Russian only from the end of the sixteenth century, where it probably came from Middle High German. By the beginning of the seventeenth century the object was known to foreigners as a "hat. " [48].

The verkh was another type of hat. The word has a number of meanings, but in these contexts it apparently means "hat, " or the top part of a hat. The word is of Russian origin.

Vershok was the second most popular name for hat, after shapka. This word had many meanings. Sometimes it was mentioned together with shapka, indicating that it was a special kind of shapka. It was of Russian origin.

There was more than one word for a woman's head-dress, kokoshnik, soroka and volosnik. The word kokoshnik reputedly is descriptive, from kokosh' (= chicken), the birds comb [49]. 

The soroka was another woman's head-dress and this name is also allegedly descriptive: after the name of the bird by the same name, the magpie, its tail [50]. The third womans head-dress was the volosnik, from the word for "hair, " volos.

The insole in Russian was stel'ka, a word whose etymology has not been studied, to my knowledge.

Balakhon was one kind of man's jacket. The word is from Tatar, which may have gotten it from Persian, and has been in the Russian language since at least the mid-sixteenth century [51].

The telogreia is probably a more interesting garment than the balakhon, or at least its history is more complex. The word has 2 parts which break down into a caique: "body warmer. "

The kerchief or shawl seems to have been another standard late Muscovite garment. Platok seems to be a diminutive derived from plat — "piece of cloth. "

Leggings appear once in the data set. Nagavitsa/nogavitsa comes from noga = "leg. "

In a country like Russia it is not surprising that the lining was a prominent commodity. This reminds one of the "belt, " in which there was one Russian name for the garment when made of cloth, and quite another when made of fur. In the case of the lining, the word podkladka signified the lining made of cloth, whereas the ispod was made of fur. Both were of Russian origin.

Mittens were a prime necessity in Russia. The basic garments to be discussed here were: golitsy, rukavitsy, and varegi. Golitsy were leather mittens without a lining. The word derives from the word golyi = bare, naked.

Varegi are supposed to be mitten liners either knitted or made of pressed felt to be worn under leather mittens [52]. The etymology of this is not certain, but seems to be from variag = Varangian = Swedish mitten [53].

Far more numerous were the regular mittens the mselves, rukavitsy. The word derives from the word for "hand, " "arm, " ruka.

By the end of the period covered by this monograph the necktie had made its appearance in Russia. The etymological dictionaries attribute the first appearance of the word galstuk to the early eighteenth century, but actually it was present as early as 1676 in conjunction with the German theatre in Moscow. There is some dispute over whether the Russian word galstuk is of German or Dutch origin, but the former seems more plausible to me [54].

Pants had at least 2 names in Russian, роrtki and shtany. The general form may have been portki, which also may have been a looser garment. One theory of its etymology is that it comes from ροή— "coarse cloth, suchas hemp or flax, " although there is another theory that it comes from Turkish. The word has been known at least since the fifteenth century [55].

Shtany are more interesting. These pants were, firstly, more tight fitting and shorter in the legs than portki. The word is known to have been only in Russian from after the Time of Troubles, and may come from native Russian sources, Turkish, or even the West [56].

The fur plate was one of the contributions by Russia to world civilization. It was a number of pelts sewn together in a large rectangle, probably about the size of a coat lining. For squirrels, these plates were 4 or 5 pelts long/high and 10 to 14 pelts wide. The tska may have evolved from the word doska = "plate, board" around the sixteenth century [57].

The purse was an ancient material object with at least 4 different names: cherez, koshel'/kosheliok, and moshna. The cherez was a long, narrow leather purse which was carried around the waist or leg. Cherez is a preposition found in some Slavic languages but not others. How it came to be the name for a purse is unknown, although it is listed as such in Richard Jamess 1618-19 Russian-English dictionary [58].

Another type of purse was the koshel' or koshelék, a word common to other Slavic languages and much in use even today ("coin purse"). Although it was probably typically made of leather; its name derives from a proto-Slavic root meaning "woven basket" [59].

A third purse (or container) was the moshna/moshnia/moshonka, for money or small valuables, made of leather, silk, or even tin. It can be traced back to proto-Slavic roots and is found in other Slavic languages


Plashch' is the usual word for raincoat today, and in fact it existed in the seventeenth century as well [61]. In the data set used in the study, however, the word plashch' exists only with the meaning of a piece of jewelry, a pendant. Thus the sole commodity that should be discussed as "raincoat" is the emurluk / iumurluk, a hooded rain garment. The name comes from the Tatar word for "rain" and in various Turkic languages means "raincoat. " The word came into its own in Russian in the seventeenth century [62].

The sash in the sense of the Russian word kushak was a belt (usually of cloth, or cord) that was tied and often had fringe on either end. Not surprisingly, kushak is another Turkic word which came into Russian use in the second half of the sixteenth century; it is not found in other Slavic languages [63].

There are 2 names for scarf in the data set, epitrakhil' / patrakhel' and sharf. The first, epitrakhil' / patrakhel', was a crucial Orthodox cult object a priest wore around his neck and without which he officially could not perform services. The term in Greek means "around the neck" [64]. The sharf came from German via Polish and, according to Chernykh, came into Russian only in the eighteenth century. The four examples in the data set from 1674 are from the Kilburger volume and thus represent a late nineteenth-century translation of a Swedish term [65].

The skirt was another normal part of the Russian wardrobe. The word rubashka, however, does not seem to be of great antiquity; its first recorded use was in 1568. The Richard James dictionary of 1618-1619 translated the word as "shirt. " The etymology of the word is clearly Russian, but the logic of the etymology ("something that is cut off) is not clear to this author [66].

Seven names for shoes are entered in the data set: bashmaki, charki, ichetogi, koty, kurpy, lapti, and obuv'. Some of these words are still in use, others are not.

Bashmak /i was a Turkish word probably borrowed from Tatar that had meant "footwear" already in Oguz and Kypchak (they may have gotten it from the Far East) and was present in Russian in Ivan IV 's property inventory.

Charki / chary was another Turkish word borrowed by the Russians, most commonly in Siberia [67].

Ichetogi / ichetygi / ichitygi / ichedogi / ichegoty / ichetki / ichigi / ichitki were yet another Tatar type of footwear, without hard soles, typically made of kid leather [68]. They might be worn as boot liners or house slippers.

Koty was another, more common form of footwear, typically calf leather, very often red, rarely black. This was usually a type of warm women's footwear, but it was worn by men as well. Vasmer attributed the word to Finnish origins, but some scholars have opted for a borrowing from Tatar [69].

Kurpy/kurpiny were yet another kind of footwear. This word comes not from Turkish or Finnish, but Baltic (Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian) [70].

Lapti (the plural of lapot) were the traditional Russian bast footwear down through the early Soviet period. The word lapti is an ancient Slavic one with Indo-European connections [71].

Apparently the skirt was not a common garment in late Muscovy, for there are only 2 of them in the data set. The word iubka in the sense of "skirt" does not exist in other Slavic languages. The word did not appear in Russian before the seventeenth century with a "b, " although it may have existed with a "p" instead in the sixteenth century. Whether it meant "skirt" before the eighteenth century is open to question. The word probably came from Arabic through French and then Middle High German and Polish into Russian [72].

The skullcap had at least 3 words for it in Russian: arakchin, skuf'ia, and taf'ia. Arakchin/arakchen borders on a mystery word [73]. I can find no other uses of or references to the word, nor can I find any etymology of it.

Skuf'ia was a slightly more common commodity and certainly is a more accessible word. This type of skullcap was worn by the clergy. The word came from Greek [74].

The taf'ia was borrowed by the Russians from the Tatars, who got the word from the Persians. The 1551 Stoglav Council (Ch. 38) forbade Russians to wear the garment, but in vain. Ivan IV's oprichniki had them. Even heirs to the throne (tsarevichi) wore them, and they were in the inventory of the property of Boris Godunov [75].

The sleeve (perhaps better, sleeves) was/were a separate item in certain Muscovite circles. The word rukav is always used in the singular (unlike, for example, words for mittens, shoes, and stockings). The word rukav is clearly derived from ruka — arm. 

Chulki (plural of chulok), stockings, in all probability is another borrowing from Turkish which appeared in Russian as a name in the second half of the fifteenth century, as an object a century later. The same word was also used in late Muscovy for a house slipper made of thin leather (see below) [76]. (A twentieth-century word for short stockings, "socks, " nosok/noski, does not appear in the data set or in the Old Russian Dictionary. )

The surplice was a cult object, a loose-fitting gown with wide sleeves worn over a cassock by a religious figure during services. The word stikhar' was directly borrowed from Greek [77].

The tunic was another important garment in late Muscovy. There were at least 4 Muscovite words which can be properly translated as "tunic": chekrnen', odnoriadka, opashen', and polukaftan.

The chekmen' was yet another garment, probably a man's short coat, whose name was borrowed from Turkish. From Russian, probably, the word found its way into Polish, but it does not exist in other Slavic languages [78]. My sources do not say when it entered the Russian language, but the fact that it is not mentioned in Sreznevskii would imply that it was rather late.

The odnoriadka was one of the commodities most frequently entered into this data set. Curiously, it is not an item that has ever (to my knowledge) aroused the interest of etymologists. Perhaps this is because the etymology of the word is relatively clear: odno clearly is "one, " while nadka is either "little row" or "layer. " Thus the clearly Russian name signifies a garment with either one row of something, or one layer of something. In the case of this overgarment, it could be one row of buttons (a "single-breasted caftan") or it could be an unlined wool coat of some kind, which it typically was [79].

The opashen' was another form of tunic, an ample man's or woman's summer outer garment of loose cut with (possibly short) sleeves and a lining, worn often thrown over the shoulders. The word was in the Russian (East Slavic) language at least as early as 1358/59. I find none of the offered etymologies of the name convincing, but it is clear that is a purely Russian word [80].

The last type of tunic to be discussed here was the polukaftan. The Turkish root -kaftan leaps out of the word, and the Russian prefix polu- typically means something like "semi-" or "pseudo-. " Thus this was a short tunic, or perhaps short caftan, which was worn under another coat [81].

The uniform was another kind of clothing, of infantrymen or other state servitors. Mundir first appeared in 1708 in conjunction with Peters post-Narva reformed army. The word originated in French, then went to German, Czech, and Polish, and then to Russian [82].


This essay has traversed the etymologies of the words for late Muscovite clothing. The results are somewhat surprising. Table I summarizes the numerical results, both the number of records containing the clothing names and the total sum paid/declared for those items.

Table I. Etymology of Clothing Terminology and Prices


# of Records

Total Rubles Paid

Finnish Greek Russian /East Slavic Turkish West Total

245 90 1, 321 981 1, 232 3, 869

46, 778. 935 1, 126. 057 98, 846. 173 37, 360. 697 201, 659. 098 385, 769. 000

The Finnish influence is due primarily to footwear (sapogi, upaki, and kan'gi) and a few dresses (shushun). Greek influence comes largely from cult objects (riasa, skhima, patrakhel', skuf'ia, stikhar' ) and one type of coat (zipun). Turkish influence was present mostly in coats, caps and skullcaps, belts and sashes, dresses, pants, shoes, and stockings, too many to list again. All of this is well known, and one gets the impression that the saying "Scratch a Russian and find a Tatar" might be rendered as "Look at a dressed late Muscovite and see a Tatar. " It is indeed difficult to imagine what a Muscovite would have looked like without the clothing types and styles borrowed from the Tatars.

The Western influence is due first to the presence of uniforms (mundiry). Shuba fur coats and shapka/shliapa hats account for most of the rest of the Western influence, both in number of records and ruble-volume. Recall, however, that shuba had been part of the Russian/East Slavic vocabulary for a quarter millennium prior to 1600. Without shuba, "Western influence" in the clothing sphere (reduced to fartuk, patrontash, saian, shapka, shliapa, galstuk, sharft, iubka, mundir, and varegi) falls to 703 records and 179, 819. 585 rubles. Take away the exaggerated mundiry and the ancient shuba, and "Western influence" (much of it moderated by Poland) would have dropped even further, to 9, 046. 505 rubles, or a paltry. 02 percent. Probably one cannot quantify "culture, " but. 02 percent just might be a fair share of Western culture in all the culture of Muscovy before, say, 1650.

Words (and presumably the material objects themselves) of ancient Russian/ East Slavic origin encompassed belts, a number of coat styles, dresses, footwraps, a few hats, jackets, kerchiefs, linings, purses, shirts, and some tunics. Traditional Russian-named clothing accounted for slightly over a third of all records of clothing and slightly over a quarter of the value of clothing.

This means that almost two-thirds of the items of clothing (as represented by the number of records) and nearly three-quarters of the clothing by value were items that had come to Muscovy (most of it relatively recently) from somewhere else. In the world of material culture, this would see m to be indicative of a quite receptive, porous, and dynamic culture, one used to change, most of it considerably before Peter the Great appeared on the scene really to shake things up. Most of the sartorial "tradition" appealed to by "traditionalist" and "anti-modern anti-reformers" was not very old, which helps to explain why Peter "got away with" what he did. The society and culture of Muscovy were constantly changing, and all Peter did, at best, was to accelerate and make more dramatic that change. Moreover, of course, he altered the source of change, from the Tatar world to the Western world, which had quietly been having its small impact over the centuries anyway.

6, 842 words. October 30, 1997

1 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 186 Chernykh, Istoriko-

etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 303-4.

2 The American Heritage Dictionary, 144. 

3 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 218; Chernykh, Isloriko-etimolocficheskii slovar', 2: 13. The word is not to be found in the new SRIa, 14 (1988): 173.

4 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 351; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 64,

5 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 468; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 110.

6 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 27; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 311-12.

7 Vasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 722-25; Chernykh, Istoriko- etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 188-89.

8 Davydova, Russko-shvedskie ekonomicheskie otnosheniia, 514, no. 311; Attman, Ekonomicheskie sviazi mezhdu Rossiei i Shvetsiei, 175, no. 127. These two collections contain essentially the same document on successive days, June 17 and 18.

9 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 559; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 139.

10 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 64; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 

11 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 377; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 

12 Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 125; RIB 23: 507.

13 AMG 1: 132.

14 Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 132. Shipova notes the first Russian usage of the word in 1677, although the Zabelin collection has it nearly half a century earlier.

15 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 212; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov,

173-74; SRIa, 7: 95; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 389.

16 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 567.

17 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 561; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 140; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 280.

18 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 48; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov. 319-20.

19 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 66.

20 Vasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 98; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 139. It also might have come from Mongol (SRIA, 6: 5). 

21 SRIa, 7: 253; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 297; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 192; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 414.

22 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 101. For Vasmcr, the word means opleukha (= "slap in the face"), which reminds me of the Ableukhovs, héros of Andrei Belyi's Peterburg.

23 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 20-21; 4: 558-59; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 133; Chemykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 284; SRIa, 5: 52.

24 SRIa, 7: 114.

25 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 538; Grigorii D'iachenko, Polnyi tserkovno-slavianskii slovar' (Moscow: Tip. Vil'de, 1899), 1: 566.

26 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 482-83.

27 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 254; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 124; Iogann de Rodes, "Preis-kurant", 18; Rozysknye delà, 4: 89.

28 Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 129.

29 Vilkov, Remeslo, 153; D'iachenko, Polnyi tserkovno-slavianskii slovar, 2 (1899): 694; Segal, Russian-English Dictionary (1951), 846.

30 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 190; Shipova, Slovar' tiukizmov, 355-56.

31 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 190; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 355-56. One of the problems in discussing this commodity is that through the eighteenth century it often appeared in a plural form, like words such as "pants" — shtany, portki, which complicates determining the price.

32 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 429-30; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 458.

33 SRIa, 14: 80; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 175. 34 SRIa, 15:

35 SRIa, 19: 120.

36 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 482; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 427.

37 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 84. Vasmer relates this to the tulup (see next paragraph), but this seems rather implausible because the tulup was a cheap garment for everyday wear, whereas the torlop was quite the opposite. 

38 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 118-19; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 333; Chemykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 270.

39 See Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 737. 40 Ibid., 105, 230.

41 Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 167. 42 SRIa, 8: 217.

43 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 798-99; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 290.

44 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 142; Chernykh, Etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 599.

45 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 187-88; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 162.

46 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 562; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 228; SRIa, 9: 12.

47 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar, 4: 406; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 401-2.

48 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 456; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 418.

49 Vasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 284.

50 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 723.

51 SRIa, 1: 68; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 114; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 55.

52 SRIa, 2: 19.

53 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 274.

54 SRIa, 4: 9; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 389; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 180.

55 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 334; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 260-61; SRIa, 17: 131.

56 Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 424-25; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 423.

57 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 303.

58 Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 381.

59 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 359-60.

60 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 667-68. 61 SRIa, 15: 81.

62 Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 132; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 19. 

63 Fasmer, Etimologichcskii slovar', 2: 439; Chcrnykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 460; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 216.

64 SRIa, 14: 170-71; D'iachenko, Polnyi tserkovno-slavianskii slovar', 1: 175-76; Polnyi pravoslavnyi bogoslovnyi entsiklopedicheskii slovar', 1: 866; Khristianstvo, 1: 533.

65 Fasmer, Etimologichcskii slovar', 4: 411-12; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 404; Kurts, Sochinenie Kil'burgera, 115.

66 Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 125.

67 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 316-17; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 377-78.

68 SRIa 6: 358; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 145; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 143-44.

69 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 354; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizov, 197.

70 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 428.

71 Fasmer, Etimologichcskii slovar', 2: 459.

72 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 525; Chemykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 457-58. Words similar to iubka in other languages often mean something like "jacket. " Ch. 17 above noted a scrap of woolen skirt material for the year 1639-40.

73 SRIa 1: 44; Zabelin, Domashnii byt, 2: 685.

74 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 663; D'iachenko, Tserkovno-slavianskii slovar', 2: 612; Rozysknye dela, 4: 45.

75 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 29; D'iachenko, Tserkovno-slavianskii slovar', 2: 710; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 312-13.

76 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 380-81; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 2: 396; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 401.

77 D'iachenko, Tserkovno-slavianskii slovar', 2: 662; Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 761. For greater detail about the cult meaning of the stikhar', see Averintsev, Khristianstvo. Entsiklopedicheskii slovar', 2: 638-39.

78 Vasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 4: 325-26; Shipova, Slovar' tiurkizmov, 382-83.

79 Wheeler, The Oxford Russian-English Dictionary (1992), 441; SRIa, 12: 289.

80 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 143; SRIa, 13: II. 81 SRIa, 16: 267.

82 Fasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar', 3: 9-10; Chernykh, Istoriko-etimologicheskii slovar', 1: 548.