Men's Clothing Reconstruction

by Sofya la Rus, Mka Lisa Kies


Next to the reconstruction of the clothing of a princess is given the silhouette of a prince. On the prince are represented the same clothing as on the fresco of Kirillovskoy church in Kiev, which depicts Tsar Theodosius [a Byzantine emperor since Rus did not have a tsar at this time?]. As considered by the researchers of this monument, the costume of Theodosius conveys the "complete detail of a 12th cent. Russian prince”. On the prince – a pointed-top [ostroverkhij, steeple-crowned] venets, which resembles the imperial crown with characteristic lateral pendants [?], caftan with the wide sleeves, from under which be seen the sleeves of the shirt [sorochka]. The oplech'e, breastplate [nagrudnik, the vertical piece between the collar and the belt?] and hem of the caftan are decorated with plaques and stones. The cloth of the caftan is of dark red color with ornament in the form of heart-shaped figures, with krinami. On the prince - green pants and high soft boots of red color, embroidered by beads or plaques. The man’s costume given on the table corresponds to the ornamentation of the metallic attire of the time indicated.

Boyars: Urban Men: Table 75 presents the urban costume of elite and simple townspeople based on material from three cities. Fig. 13 and 14 [actually 12 & 13] give the silhouettes, created based on materials of the Raykovetskyyo fortification and ancient Izyaslavl. In Fig. 13 [12] it is possible to see a diadem of kolodochek, found on the skeleton of the victim (Goncharov V.K. 1950. Table 20, 15). The diadem is fastened to the head above plat [kerchief]. On the neck – also an ozherelok [collar] of kolodochek, known from the kurgan inventory (table 74, 25). In the composition of ornaments are included the following findings from the layer of the Raykovetskogo fortress: beads (Goncharov V.K. 1950. Table 18, 1), grivny [torque necklaces] (Ibid. Table 20, 4), glass bracelets (Ibid. Table. 22, 3) metallic bracelets (Ibid. Table 19, 9; 20, 2,3), finger rings (Ibid. Table 19, 9), belt plaques (?) (Ibid. Table 20, 11) and ozherelok (9) with embroider (Ibid. Table 29, 3). In contrast to the Raykovetskogo head-gear, on the attire from Izyalsavl (Fig. 14) [13] are shown ryasna of kolodochek with triangular components at the ends. From the lower end of the ryasen were suspended the three-bead temporal rings, while on the upper end – finger-ring-shaped rings, with the aid of which the ryasna were attached to the head-gear. Judging based on materials of the Raykovetskyyo fortification and Izyaslavl, the townspeople of those indicated cities used adornments similar in form, and also a unified collection of fabrics. The clothing is characterized by the wide use of folds/pleats, corrugation [gofirovki] and pleating. The entire dress, found in Izyaslavl, is represented in Fig. 14 [13]. It is close to clothing on the 14th cent. Novgorod icon "Nativity of the Mother of God" from the Tret'yakovskoy gallery (table 68, 1, 2). These are upper short clothing, from under which is visible a long shirt. The oplech'ya, hem, sleeves at the wrist, and also the forearm [upper arm?] are sheathed by ribbon.

The silhouettes in Fig. 10-12 [actually 9-11] of table 75 present the complex of clothing and adornments based on materials of excavations in Suzdal. The head-gear on the woman of middle years (Fig. 12) [11] encloses the hair, in the ears - is the finger-ring-shaped ring. On the girl (Fig. 10) [9] on the loose hair - band head-gear with ryasamni of the finger-ring-shaped rings, with the three-bead rings suspended on them. On a girl (Fig. 11) [10] are braided plaits, into which were placed finger-ring-shaped rings (up to 20 pcs). On the silhouettes is represented the outer clothing with the zapakh [upper flap] on the left side, the dresses and the shirts, with ribbons and embroidered collars with the fastening on the left side. Among the ornaments it is possible to see lamellar fibuli, lamellar and beaten rings and rings with insets, bracelets and so forth. The typical foot-wear of the ancient Russian townspeople were leather shoes [tufli] with the stitching. The material of the Suzdal'skogo cemetery relates to an earlier time (11th - middle 12th cent.), than the materials of the Raykovetskogo fortress and Izyaslavl (beginning of the 13th cent.). Nevertheless in Suzdal was created the typical urban attire of the 12th cent. Obviously, here as in Kiev, Novgorod, Chernigov, Smolensk, on the base of the druzhinnoy [courtly] culture, the urban culture began to develop very early.

Table 75 presents man's costume. Thus, based on materials of the Suzdal'skogo cemetery are reconstructed shirts with the different cut of collar (table 75, 2, 5). Among these is represented a silhouette in a short shirt with a stoyechka [standing collar] opening to the left (table 75, 2). The standing collar of the shirt, the sleeve at the wrist and the belt are decorated with embroidery. On graphic materials are known long men’s shirts. On them it is possible to see adornments in the form of a rectangular piece on the chest, decorated opyast'ya [cuffs] and hem (Antonov V.I., Mneva N.E. 1963. Ill. 84) (table 75, 4). On silhouette 4 is represented a long dress with voshvi, decorated with embroidery as on the voshvi found in the Vladimir kugrans (Prokhorov v. 1881. Fig. 1. Table 8) (Table 67, 7). A well preserved chest adornment of rectangular form is found in the Ivanovo province by K.I. Komarov in 1975 (Table 67, 5). On silhouette 7 is represented upper winter clothing, restored by analogy with the Hutsul sheepskin coat (Rybakov B.A. 1949 p. 37, 38. Fig 12). On silhouette 8 is shown the outer clothing with the zapakh [upper flap] on the left side, which, in the opinion of ethnographers, appeared simultaneously with the man’s blouse [kosovorotki]. Such a form of cut distinguished the outer clothing from the clothing of their neighbors (Maslova G.S. 1956 p. 581. Annotated. 4) Long outer clothing with the zapakh to the left side is known in the miniatures, depicting brothers - the founders of Kiev (Radzivillovskaya chronicle, 1902. L. 4) On the men’s silhouettes are depicted princely caps (table 75, 8, 9, 15) [actually 1, 7, 8?] and a diadem with enamel images (Table 75, 4), similar to those known from the kurgan in d. Mutyshino of the Smolenskaya area (Savin N.I. 1930 p. 233. Table 2, 19). Men's costumes includes boots of 12th cent. form which are known from the excavations in Novgorod and Pskov.

Peasants: The peasant costume is mainly established with archaeological material from the burials of the Krivichi and Vyatichi. The correspondence of fabrics from the archaeological excavations with peasant fabrics of the 19th to beginning of the 20th cent., and also their terminological correspondences made it possible to carry many types of peasant clothing of the 19th cent. back to the earlier period.

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